Comenius:2009.08: Efecto invernadero

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Preguntas iniciales, tareas, algunas referencias

La actividad industrial, la deforestación y el mercado automovilístico son los principales causantes de concentración de CO2 en la atmósfera. Investigar, por tanto, cómo todos los hechos anteriores repercuten en el calentamiento global y qué consecuencias tiene en la gestión del agua.

Entender el efecto invernadero: Tipo de energías existentes, especificando cuáles están relacionadas con el agua, especificando el % de producción según países/continentes. De todas las anteriores especificar si son energías limpias y si/no renovables. Uso indiscriminado de los combustibles fósiles (carbón, petróleo y sus derivados).

Estudiantes Lope de Vega

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E.S.O. 4B: Angélica, José Antonio, Celia, Yolanda

1st Newsletter Oct 2009 LdV

Our topic is the Greenhouse effect and various existing energy alternatives which can help to stop the mentioned emission and allow industrialized countries a sustainable development. Of course, the indiscriminate use of fossil fuels is a very important point, since it contributes to the increase of the mentioned toxic gases in the atmosphere. All this changes have social, political, economic, and environmental consequences, about which we are going to talk in this project.

Sweden Newsletter

This is a letter from group 8 in Sweden. We are five guys, Martin, Marcus, Fredrik, Jacob and leader of the group, Melker. We attend the technical program at our upper-secondary school Röllingby in Åkersberga. Åkersberga is located just outside Stockholm which is the capital city of Sweden.

We have been working with environmental issues on both a local and a global level. This year we have been focusing on global warming, the effects, consequences and how to prevent it. We discussed and worked with the value of water on a global level. Last year we worked with water only on a local level but this year the project is global.

We saw the movie “An Inconvenient Truth” by Al Gore, and that taught us a lot about carbon dioxide emissions and how to reduce them.

Looking forward to hearing from you. – Group Eight.

2nd Newsletter Nov 2009 LdV

Hello, we are working on the Greenhouse effect for two weeks now. We found a lot of information about this topic so we have to work hard in order to elaborate summaries using common language. Everybody is working on his/her respective topic and if one of us has any problems to find information we help each other. It is entertaining and we are learning a lot about this problem. We never imagined that the alteration of the water cycle could be affected by so many factors, like deforestation, desertification or acid rain. We expect to learn much and to extend our knowledge so to contribute to improve the world.
Group work on the Greenhouse effect


3rd Newsletter Nov 2009 LdV

The indiscriminate use of non-renewable energy results in conflict with the wealthier countries, struggling to get most benefit from these energies. While most countries are suffering and fighting desfaborecidos these circumstances are also facing changes in nature. The extreme heat with water shortages pose a serious blow for them. We must realize the real situation in which we live. Unless we act now, the problems faced today are not even half of that disastrous ahead in the future, although many of the effects of climatic variations not appear until after two or three generations.

Aquí desarrollamos nuestro tema

06 Nov 2009: Presentación del grupo 08 - Efecto invernadero


What are the greenhouse effects?

The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that has developed in our planet and prevents that a part of the heat of the Sun got for the land leaves the atmosphere and returns to the space, producing an effect similar to the observed one in a greenhouse.

This mechanism allows that the planet should have an acceptable temperature for the development of the life as we know her. It consists of the absorption, on the part of the so called present greenhouse gases of the atmosphere, of the infrared radiations expressed(emitted) by the terrestrial surface because of the warming due to the Sun, preventing that they escape to the space and increasing, therefore, the everage temperature of the planet.

The greenhouse effect is produced both in a natural way and of an artificial way (principally for the industrialization).

These gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), water steam (H2O), ozone (O3), methane (CH4), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and the chlorfluorocarbons CFCs take charge absorbing the energy expressed(emitted) by the Sun, preventing that the days are too warm or the too cold nights; an increase in the emission(issue) of these gases provokes big drastic changes in the world climate making it increasingly unpredictable, suffering alterations in the regional temperatures, in the rate of the rainfalls, increases in the desertification, alterations in the agriculture, the warming of the current termohalina and the setback of the polar caps, increasing this way the level of the sea and causing floods in the coastal and continental zones in the whole world.

These gases are chemically very stable for what they can remain in the atmosphere during several decades.

Mars has almost the same size of the Earth, and is to a distance of the very similar Sol, but it(he) is so cold that there neither exists liquid water (only there is ice), there nor has revealed itself life of any type. This is because his(her,your) atmosphere is much thinner and almost it(he,she) does not have greenhouse gases. On the other hand, Venus has a very thick atmosphere, composed almost in its entirety by greenhouse gases. The result? His(her,your) surface is 500ºC warmer than would be without these gases.

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Relative contribution of the greenhouse gases to the greenhouse effect (2004)
To understand better how the greenhouse effect affects our planet.  

Types of renewable and not renewable energies

Not renewable

They Are those which reservations are limited and become exhausted with the use. The principal ones are the nuclear power and the fossil fuels. The fossil fuels are not renewable resources.

  • Fossil energy: The fossil fuels can be in use in solid, liquid or gaseous form. They are accumulations of alive beings who lived it does million years and that have become fossilized forming coal or hydrocarbons. The organic matter decomposed for lack of oxygen. The energy most used in the world is the fossil energy. The planet can give energy for 40 more years.
  • Nuclear energy: The thermonuclear head offices take advantage of this energy to produce electricity by means of turbines of water steam. A consequence of the activity of production of this type of energy they are the nuclear residues.

Renewable

The permanent sources are those that have solar origin. The Sun will remain in more time that the land.

  • Water power: The hydroelectric head offices take advantage of the energy of the rivers. In Spain one uses 15 % of this energy for producing electricity.
  • Biomass: By means of the photosynthesis the plants that contain chlorophyll, transform the carbon dioxide and the water of mineral products without energetic value, in organic materials with contained energetic high place. The energy stored in the photosynthetic process can be transformed into thermal energy.
  • Solar power: The solar power is a source of life and origin of the majority of other forms of energy in the Earth. The solar power can transform in thermal energy, and using photovoltaic panels the luminous energy can transform in electric energy. Two components are distinguished: the direct radiation and the diffuse radiation. The direct radiation is the one that comes directly from the solar area. The diffuse one is the expressed(emitted) one for the celestial diurnal vault thanks to the multiple phenomena of reflection and solar refraction in the atmosphere. The systems of solar photovoltaic concentration use the direct radiation with active recipients to maximize the production of energy.
  • Wind power: The wind power is the energy obtained of the force of the wind. The wind power has been taken advantage from the antiquity to move the ships stimulated by candles. The energy of the wind is related to the movement of the air masses.
  • Geotermic energy: The geothermal energy is that energy that can be obtained by the man by means of the utilization of the heat of the interior of the Earth.
  • Maremotriz energy: The wave energy owes to the gravitational forces between the Moon, the Earth and the Sun, which the tides originate. By means of his coupling to an alternator it is possible to use the system for the generation of electricity, transforming the wave energy into electric power.
Wind power: The wind power is the energy obtained of the force of the wind.


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The fuel's effect in the environment

The fossil fuels are rich substances in energy that has been formed from plants and microorganisms buried for a long time. The fossil fuels, include the oil, the coal and the natural gas, provide most of the energy that the modern industrial society moves.

His indiscriminate use

Lamentably, the product of his indiscriminate use, there has been generated an environmental deterioration that can come to intolerable levels if opportune corrections do not take. Palpable evidences of the degradation of the world ecosystem are: the global warming, the decrease of the cap of ozone, the arctic effect and the acid rain, for what the need to develop other energetic sources that replace the fossil fuels is increasingly urgent..

This need is known well by each and every of the countries of the world, the birth of a set of energetic harmonic sources ambientals, renewable and inexhaustible, called generically alternative energies. At present, there exists an incessant search of forms of utilization of these energies that are feasible technically and attractive economically. The energetic world reality demands, unpardonably, the search of alternatives for better, healthier and more just development.

Types of fuel

  • The coalis a fossil fuel, of black very rich color in carbon it is in the habit of being located under a cap of slate and on a cap of sand and chalk. One originates for decomposition of terrestrial vegetables, leaves, wood barks and spores.
  • The oil oils of stone it is a complex not homogeneous mixture of hydrocarbons that are composed principally formed by hydrogen and carbon. The oil is formed by hydrocarbons principally, that are composed of hydrogen and carbon.
  • The natural gas is a gas mixture that one finds frequently in fossil deposits, only or accompanying to the oil or to the coal yards. The natural gas that is obtained must be tried for his commercial or domestic use. Some of the gases from his composition are extracted because they do not have energetic capacity.


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The consequences of this effect are numerous, here we will speak on the most important.

Economic consequences

[[1] [Libertad Digital [2]] It(He,She) has given many attention to the economic consequences derived from the application of the protocol of Kioto. In a series of five articles, published in the magazine You Design, A revision was done of of what the protocol of Kioto consists and which are his(her,your) more important consequences. Causeway warned that " worldwide there will take place(be produced) a distortion of the competition and a decrease of the global productivity that would suffer specially the poorest countries. On the one hand, the companies will end being established in places where, in spite of there being worse conditions of business, the absence of irrational limitations on GEI's emission(issue) (Greenhouse gas) makes them more attractive. For another side, the countries with excess of rights will be able to subsidize those industries that the leaders consider to be necessary. The result is not other one(different) that a gigantic kick to the structure of the division of the international work that will stop having relation with the relative productivity of the factors of production according to the different regions ". The motive is that " the prices of the energy would raise so much that the expense in energy of the poor (homes(fireplaces) with minor income to 10.000 dollars), would spend(pass) from 10 to 20 % of his(her,your) budget in 2010. The price of the electricity would grow 52 %, the cost of the housing 21 % and the foodstaffs 9 %. It is necessary to bear in mind that the costs of the energy grow for all, including to whom they produce goods and services, for what these would rise also for the consumers ". Gorka Echevarría centred his(her,your) article on the consequences that it(he,she) will have in the sector of the transport. " In the middle of a climbing price of the petrol and the diesel that the International Council for The Capital Formation estimates between(among) 17 and one 25 %, an increase of the price of the electricity used in the processes of production in 70 %, the reduction of the Spanish GDP in almost 5 % and the consequent increase of the unemployment in 850.000 annual working places, to use the car is going to turn into a good of luxury, almost so much like to eat caviar every day or to be an owner of a Ferrari ". Finally, Jose Carlos Rodríguez was saying that " the companies would have to adopt other methods of production that were resulting in a minor emission(issue) of greenhouse gases. The economists also have been alert of the disastrous effects that the climatic change will have on the world economy with reductions of up to 20 % in the growth, when the measures to avoid it would not exceed 1 %. [10] The economic predicted hurts(damages) would come principally from the effect of the natural catastrophes, with large losses of human lives, for example in Europe.

Social consequences

[3] The increase of the temperatures in 3 " or 4 " during this century the level of the seas would raise. The number of refugees victims of the droughts or of floods might come to approximately 200 million persons. Even big cities like Tokyo, London, New York and the Cairo would suffer the risk of anegamientos. According to Stern's report, by the middle of century there will be frequent the heat waves in which the poor countries would suffer the impact before and in a harder way. The melting of the glaciers will raise first the risk of floods and later it(he,she) will reduce the stock of drinkable water, which will suppose a threat for the sixth part(report) of the world population.

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Consequences in the world current ecosystem

[4] Here yes interactions of importance exist between(among) the climate and the natural species(kinds). Since minimum fits to hope that there fortify the secondary species(kinds) of every biocenosis that are more adapted to the extreme conditions. If the change of climate is intense it(he,she) will imply a rapid redistribution of the natural species(kinds), beginning for more opportunists and more amoldables. There will be an important climatic stress, but ultimately there will will to be reached a new system of balance in which probably they eliminate certain species(kinds), but in that others will be favoured.

The global dimness has interfered with the hydrological cycle reducing the evaporation and it(he,she) could have provoked droughts in some zones. The trend has been reverted during the decade of them 90s. The global dimness creates an effect of cooling that could have led the scientists to underestimating the effects of the greenhouse gases masking partially the so called global warming.

The paper(role) of the oceans in the global warming is complex. The oceans use as "reservoir" for the CO2, absorbing part(report) of what would have to be in the atmosphere. The increase of the CO2 has given place to the acidification of the ocean. In addition, the temperature of the oceans descends it is difficult to them mas to absorb the excess of CO2.

Consequences in the current civilization

[5] The change climatic will force to a new relation with the way, with which the keys of the civilization will must change. We suspect, with certain safety, that there have been in the history civilizations that have eliminated, or changed so radically that they are not recognizable, due to the climatic changes that along the history have exist. It(he,she) will not be of surprising that the western civilization suffers similar changes, for example looking for more effective forms of utilization of the energy.

Sight of Tarawa's atoll in Kiribati. The inhabitants of Kiribati's small nation have accepted the inexorable disappearance of his(her,your) paradisal islands under the waters of the Pacific because of the climatic change.


Political consequences

The agreement newly was ratified at the end of 2004 by the incorporation between(among) the signatories of Russia, which allowed his(her,your) putting in effect months later. There is disappointing the attitude of the government of George W. Bush of not signing to the agreement, since, since they do not have the minor modesty in the own(proper) American authorities confess, such a intention is not compatible with the aspirations of his(her,your) economy. Let's remember that this country is the major pollutant of the world, producing 36 % of the global emission(issues) of gases greenhouse. This factor reveals the urgency of including to the great power of the north in the agreement.

The agreement imposes neither obligations nor goals to the least developed countries that express(emit) minor quantity of gases greenhouse, not at least on those who signed to the agreement. Such it is the case of China and India, which are between(among) the principal pollutants.

In this point it(he,she) is that the agreement teaches(shows) his(her,your) fissures, his(her,your) limitations. It(he,she) is that nobody dares to propose solutions to the problem of the climatic change, because clearly it would enter contradiction with the system of capitalist accumulation. Kyoto's Agreement there reaches a model of extenuation of the indexes of growth of the global warming, in order to reduce or to postpone his(her,your) severe consequences to environmental level (certainly that the instrumentation of this one or another agreement is better than anything).

Understanding(Including) this it(he,she) is that we can understand the business of the " units of carbon " between(among) the industrialized countries and the developing countries. Since(as) the quota of gas emission(issues) greenhouse of the above mentioned is situated below the tolerated limit, they are authorized to sell " bonds of emission(issues) not realized " to the countries that yes they exceed the line, and then these can continue contaminating without objections. The argument that support the ideologists of Kyoto's Protocol to justify these maneuvers opportunists is that it(he,she) does not matter really the one who is behind the emission(issues), since the atmosphere does not recognize national borders. The important thing, then, is to support a level of tolerable pollution, beyond how it is the distribution of the sources(fountains).



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Conclusión del tema

El uso indiscriminado de las energías no renovables tiene como consecuencia conflictos con los países más ricos, que luchan por obtener mayor beneficio de éstas energías. Mientras que los países más desfaborecidos sufren y luchan contra éstas circunstancias se enfrentan también a los cambios producidos en la naturaleza. El extremo calor con la falta de agua suponen un golpe muy duro para ellos. Debemos darnos cuenta de la real situación en la que nos encontramos. Si no actuamos ahora, los problemas que se presentan en la actualidad no serán ni la mitad de desastrosos que los que nos esperan en el futuro, a pesar de que muchos de los efectos de las variaciones climáticas no se muestren hasta después de dos o tres generaciones.


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Temas 2009/2010 en Lope de Vega

Temas 2009/2010 en Lope de Vega:

01. Obtención del agua | 02. Políticas de gestión del agua | 03. Aumento de la población | 04. Deforestación | 05. Desertificación | 06. Sequía | 07. Salud humana | 08. Efecto invernadero | 09. Lluvia ácida | 10. Derretimiento de los glaciares y polos | 11. Alteración del ciclo del agua | 12. El agua como el mayor conflicto geopolítico del siglo XXI