Comenius:Solutions - Economical aspects/Spain/Group 2

From Wiki de Vega
Jump to: navigation, search

Solutions to the effects of global warming on water management from a economical point of view...proposed by

Es.gif Group 2

Group 2 is conformed by: Alba: Celia, Aitana, Romy




CFL bulbs

The EU will implement its widespread use in 2011

One of the major problems of the climate change, which affects us all over the world, is the increase of CO2. The Compact Fluorescent light (CFL) bulb is one of the solutions to this problem. It has many advantages, and only one disadvantage, they are expensive. These bulbs are "cold". In contrast, half the energy consumed bye an incandescent bulb becomes hot, and dos not give light. It's becoming more common to see them in flashlights, cars and traffic lights.

In the economic scope, with these bulbs you can also save money even though they are more expensive. The CFLbulbs last up to 10 times more (about 12000 hours compared to the 1000 hours of the regular bulbs) and only cost seven times more, but in the long run the consumer saves money. 15% of the monthly household electricity bill is for lighting (talking into account using regular bulbs).

An CFL bulb of 18 watts used in place of a 75 watt regular bulb saves 570 kWh, which saves 62€ in this period of time and reduces in half a ton the amount of CO2 into the atomosphere. If 20% of the Spanish population changes five incandescent light (regular) bulbs for CFL bulbs, it could cut 480 million euros in electricity and reduce CO2 emissions by 3 million tons.

The EU allocated 6 million CFL bulbs that will be distributed free to citizens by 2011 and will implement its widespread use in 2011.








Reforestation

Replant. If you cut trees, you destroy the ecosystem of many species.

Reforestation is a way to offset the greenhouse effects. Replanted forests provide a home for some species of animals, plants and microorganisms.


Why do we have to replant?

Because of the following consequences of deforestation:

  • Soil erosion and destabilization of the water table, causing floods or droughts.
  • Climate changes.
  • Reduction of biodiversity for plants and animals.
  • Global warming of the earth: for deforested forests can not remove excess dioxide carbon from atmosphere.


Some nations tropical nature reserves have been built to save acres of rainforest.

Make "tree-free paper". Crops that can substitute trees are hemp, cotton and wheat straw. One problem: where can these crops be cultivated that will produce 300 million tons os paper each year? Unfortunately this should be done in places where trees could be grown.

Replace wood as a material used for building for environmental alternatives. The only substitutes are steel, cement, plastic and brick. All this requires a greater amount of energy to produce.


In Haiti, each year the seventy million nursery plants are distributed to forty-five thousand farmers. The survival rate of these plants is over 50%, and after a few years the trees, which grow rapidly, can be sold as firewood or as construction material.


The Ecuatorian government authorized the banking to grant loans to the farmers who plant trees. After two years, if the trees have been taken care well and are growing, the government returns the money to the banks. Contrary, if the farmer does not take care well for the plants and too many die, the farmer must return the money with the corresponding interests, and pay a fine.


In Peru, a sustainable forest clearing method has been introduced. Every year a fringe of trees are cut at a certain distance to the fringe cut the previous year. The fringes are narrow enough to be repopulated naturally (for the seeds proceed from the neighboring trees). In a few years the fringe will be repopulated.


In Costa Rica uncultivated zones are generally protected in ordes to maintain biological diversity, whereas in the natural reserves one consents the extraction. This happened because:

  • All forests were destroyed before starting to save them.
  • the population understood the importance of forest protection.
  • the politicians are concerned about the issue.
  • the international community provided important support giving money.


Lack of infraestructures

The lack of infrastructures in Africa is one of the principal reasons for the lack of growth and development of the economies of the continent. This impedes the access to the drinkable water. The deficient management of waste water and the utilization of low quality underground water are more difficulties. All that provokes health problems and political conflicts in the population. A study says that to modernize the infrastructures of the continent we need approximately 63 billion Euros. The African population pay prices up to 10 times higher than the rest of the world for services such as energy. A solution would be to modernize the infrastructures, but this takes necessary political help.



Renewable energies

Renewable energies are the future. They don't get run out and with them we will diminish the CO2 in the air.

Their main features are:

  • They are clean, and don't generate waste.
  • They don't produce CO2 or other polluting gases into the atmosphere.
  • They are unlimited.
  • They don't depend on other sources, they're autonomous.
  • They create five times more jobs locally than conventional energies.
  • They are alternatives to conventional energies
Solar energy
Wind energy


Renewable energies are classified according to the natural source from which they come:

  • Solar energy: One of the most used renewable energies and it's based on the utilization of solar radiation, which is then converted into electricity or heat.
  • Wind Energy: It's also a widely used renewable energy. It is produced through the kinetic energy of transforming wind into electricity, using wind turbines that are grouped into wind farms.
  • Hydraulic Energy: Obtained from the use of the kinetic and potential flow of rivers, waterfalls and tides.
  • Biomass Energy: from the use of organic matter formed in some biological process, generally, substances which are living organisms or their remains and debris.
  • Geothermal energy - is energy from heat inside the earth, employed for thermal use.


Some disadvantages of renewable energy.

Renewable energy can produce negative impacts, although those are not comparable to conventional energy:

  • They produce high visual impact.
  • They are variable and unpredictable in their entirety.
  • It is difficult to ensure their total supply.
  • Some of them are not sufficiently developed technologically.
  • There are difficulties in storage so it does not rieach its full potential.

The support and strong investment in research and development being done with this type of energy is by removing or minimizing these disadvantages, therefore, presents a alternative as compared to conventional energy throughout the construction process.



Glossary

Crops-> Cultivos

Drinkable water-> Agua potable

Environmental alternatives-> Alternativas ambientales

Firewood-> Leña

Greenhouse effect-> Efecto invernadero

Hemp-> Cáñamo

Lack of infraestructures-> Falta de infraestructuras

Management of waste water-> Gestión de las aguas residuales

Rainforest-> Bosque tropical

Save energy-> Ahorro de energía

Tree-free paper-> Papel sin árboles

Water underground-> Aguas subterráneas

Bulb-> Bombilla

CFL bulb-> Bombilla de bajo consumo

Citizens-> Ciudadanos

Incandescent bulb -> Bombilla incandescente Watts-> vatios





Geographical aspects


Fr.gif   Nl.gif   Es.gif   Se.gif
1     1     1     1
2     2     2     2
3     3     3     3
             4

Economical aspects


Fr.gif   Nl.gif   Es.gif   Se.gif
1     1     1     1
2     2     2     2
3     3     3     3

Social aspects


Fr.gif   Nl.gif   Es.gif   Se.gif
1     1     1     1
2     2     2     2
3     3     3     3
             4

Political aspects


Fr.gif   Nl.gif   Es.gif   Se.gif
1     1     1     1
2     2     2     2
3     3     3     3