Comenius:Solutions - Economical aspects/Spain/Group 3

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Solutions to the effects of global warming on water management from a economical point of view...proposed by

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Group 3 is conformed by: Roland: Sonia, Carlos, Noelia



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Solutions

Renewable Energies

Green Energy is a term that describes the energy generated from respectful sources of primary energy with the environment. The green energies are renewable energies that do not contaminate, that is to say, whose way of securing or use does not express by-products that could affect negatively in the environment.

Hidraulic Energy

The potential energy accumulated in the water jumps can be transformed into electrical energy. The hydroelectric head offices make use of the energy of the rivers to put in function a few turbines that move an electrical generator.

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Solar Energy

The solar energy is a source of life and origin of the majority of other forms of energy in the Earth. Every year the solar radiation contributes to the Earth the energy equivalent to several thousands of times the quantity of energy that the humanity consumes. Gathering from suitable form the solar, this radiation it can transform in other forms of energy as thermal energy or electrical energy using solar panels. An important advantage of the solar energy is that the generation of energy allows in the same place of consumption by means of the architectural integration. This way, we can give place to systems of generation distributed in that there are eliminated almost completely the losses related to the transport - that at present suppose approximately 40 % of the whole - and the energy dependency.

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Biomass

The formation of biomass from the solar energy is carried out by the process named vegetable photosynthesis that in turn is fundamental of the biological chain. By means of the photosynthesis the plants that contain chlorophyll, transform the dioxide of carbon and the water of mineral products without energy value, in organic materials with contained energy high place and in turn they serve as food to other living beings. The biomass by means of these processes stores in the short term the solar energy in the shape of carbon. The energy stored in the photosynthetic process can be transformed later into thermal, electrical energy or fuels of vegetable origin, liberating again the dioxide of stored carbon.

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Eolic Energy

The wind energy is the obtained energy of the force of the wind, that is to say, by means of the use of the kinetic energy generated by the air currents. The energy of the wind is related to the movement of the air masses that they displace of areas of atmospheric high pressure towards adjacent areas of low pressure, with proportional speeds Eolic01.jpg

Permaculture

Permaculture is an approach to designing human settlements and agricultural systems that mimic the relationships found in natural ecologies. The intent is that, by rapidly training individuals in a core set of design principles, those individuals can design their own environments and build increasingly self-sufficient human settlements — ones that reduce society's reliance on industrial systems of production and distribution that Mollison identified as fundamentally and systematically destroying Earth's ecosystems. While originating as an agro-ecological design theory, permaculture has developed a large international following. This "permaculture community" continues to expand on the original ideas, integrating a range of ideas of alternative culture, through a network of publications, permaculture gardens, intentional communities, training programs, and internet forums. In this way, permaculture has become a form of architecture of nature and ecology as well as an informal institution of alternative social ideals.

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Modern Permaculture

Modern permaculture is a system design tool. It is a way of: 1.Looking at a whole system or problem. 2.Observing how the parts relate. 3.Planning to mend sick systems by applying ideas learned from long-term sustainable working systems. 4.Seeing connections between key parts. In permaculture, practitioners learn from the working systems of nature to plan to fix the damaged landscapes of human agricultural and city systems.

Green Buildings

Green Building, also known as green construction or sustainable building, is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: 1.Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources. 2.Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity. 3.Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation. Characteristics: 1.Usage of recycled materials. 2.Usage of near materials to minimize transport costs and emission of CO2. 3.Usage of photovoltaic badges. 4.etc.

Examples of recycled materials or environment friendly materials

Green Concrete

Every metric ton of concrete which is produced binds half a metric ton of carbon dioxide - namely chemically solidly and permanently. If we produced from now on all concrete in such a way, we could bunker every year more than milliard metric tons of carbon dioxid. However, in addition, we can also produce those fillers which are used for concrete and asphalt production. There it is about five or 10-spot larger amounts of the climate gas. The procedure allows to store 10-spot more carbon dioxide every year than the reduction purposes of the Kyoto protocol. How is it produced? The magnesium and calcium disolved in water, form carbon dioxid carbonate,a chemical reaction. The result of this reaction is a mineral mud, wich is used as concrete.

Dimension Stone

Dimension stone is 100% reusable and can be salvaged for new construction, used as paving or crushed for use as aggregates. There are also "green" methods of stone cleaning either in development or already in use, such as removing the black gypsum crusts that form on marble and limestone by applying sulfate-reducing bacteria to the crust to gasify it, breaking up the crust for easy removal.

Steel

Steel is one of the most recycled materials in the world, and, as of 2007, more than 78% of steel was recycled in the United States. In the United States it is the most widely recycled material; in 2000, more than 60 million metric tons were recycled. Because steel beams are manufactured to standardized dimensions, there is often very little waste produced during construction, and any waste that is produced may be recycled. For a typical 2,000-square-foot (200 m2) two-story house, a steel frame is equivalent to about six recycled cars, while a comparable wooden frame house may require as many as 40–50 trees.



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Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities. These goals have been defined by a variety of disciplines and may be looked at from the vantage point of the farmer or the consumer. Sustainable agriculture refers to agricultural production that can be maintained without harming the environment. The term sustainable agriculture means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long term: 1.Satisfy human food and fiber needs. 2.Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends. 3.Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls. 4.Sustain the economic viability of farm operations. 5.Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.

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Economical point of view

Renewable Energies

When comparing renewable energy sources with each other and with conventional power sources, three main factors must be considered: 1.Capital costs (including, for nuclear energy, waste-disposal and decommissioning costs) 2.Operating and maintenance costs; 3.Fuel costs (for fossil-fuel and biomass sources—for wastes, these costs may actually be negative). These costs are all brought together, using discounted cash flow, here. Inherently, renewables are on a decreasing cost curve, while non-renewables are on an increasing cost curve. In 2009, costs are comparable among wind, nuclear, coal, and natural gas, but for CSP—concentrating solar power—and PV (photovoltaics) they are somewhat higher. There are additional costs for renewables in terms of increased grid interconnection to allow for variability of weather and load, but these have been shown in the pan-European case to be quite low—overall, wind energy costs about the same as present-day power

Permaculture

A basic principle is thus to "add value" to existing crops. A permaculture design therefore seeks to provide a wide range of solutions by including its main ethics as an integral part of the final value-added design. Crucially, it seeks to address problems that include the economic question of how to either make money from growing crops or exchange crops for labor such as in the LETS scheme. Each final design therefore should include economic considerations as well as give equal weight to maintaining ecological balance, making sure that the needs of people working on the project are met and that no one is exploited. Community economics requires a balance between the three aspects that comprise a community: justice, environment and economics, also called the triple bottom line, or "ecological-economics-ethics" (EEE) or "triple E". A cooperative farmer's market could be an example of this structure. The farmers are the workers and owners. Additionally, all economics are limited by their ecology. No economic system stands apart independently from its eco-system; therefore, all external costs must be considered when discussing economics.

Green Buildings

The most criticized issue about constructing environmentally friendly buildings is the price. Photo-voltaics, new appliances, and modern technologies tend to cost more money. Most green buildings cost a premium of <2%, but yield 10 times as much over the entire life of the building. The stigma is between the knowledge of up-front cost vs. life-cycle cost. The savings in money come from more efficient use of utilities which result in decreased energy bills. Also, higher worker or student productivity can be factored into savings and cost deductions. Studies have shown over a 20 year life period, some green buildings have yielded $53 to $71 per square foot back on investment. It is projected that different sectors could save $130 Billion on energy bills.

Sustainable Agriculture

Socioeconomic aspects of sustainability are also partly understood. Regarding less concentrated farming, the best known analysis is Netting's study on smallholder systems through history. The Oxford Sustainable Group defines sustainability in this context in a much broader form, considering effect on all stakeholders in a 360 degree approach. Given the finite supply of natural resources at any specific cost and location, agriculture that is inefficient or damaging to needed resources may eventually exhaust the available resources or the ability to afford and acquire them. It may also generate negative externality, such as pollution as well as financial and production costs. The way that crops are sold must be accounted for in the sustainability equation. Food sold locally requires little additional energy, aside from that necessary for cultivation, harvest, and transportation (including consumers). Food sold at a remote location, whether at a farmers' market or the supermarket, incurs a different set of energy cost for materials, labour, and transport.

Bibliographie








Geographical aspects


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Economical aspects


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Social aspects


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Political aspects


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