Comenius:Solutions - Geographical aspects/Spain

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Solutions to the effects of global warming on water management from a geographical point of view.
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Geographical aspects/Spain  Es.gif : The present page shall contain the Geographical solutions agreed upon between the three groups from Spain. Deadline: 2010 Feb 26
Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 1
Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 2
Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 3
Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 4


Sustainable urban growth

The limits of natural resources suggest three basic rules in connection with the rhythms of sustainable development.

1. Renewable resource should be used no faster than its generation.

2. No pollutant must be at a higher rate than it can be recycled, neutralized or absorbed by the environment.

3. No non-renewable resource use should be faster than necessary to replace it with a renewable resource, used sustainably.

According to some authors, these three rules are necessarily subject to the absence of population growth.

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CITY OF THE FUTURE

Introduction

What will the city of the future? To build a city as perfect as possible should take into account a number of principles:

1 .- will have to be from virgin areas where there are no cities or destroy the imperfect parts of them and hamper the new designs.

2 .- should be taken into account to avoid damaging the environment or do as little as possible. In other words, you must be a city "green."

3 .- have to be designed in accordance with the latest advances in science and technology.

Alternatives

The first principle is the most controversial: Can not raze the cities for obvious reasons, what is done with the population of the city while building the new? What do you do with the art buildings (sometimes entire neighborhoods)? They are the culture of peoples and civilizations. There are some intermediate alternatives:

1 .- preserve artistic and cultural areas and other neighborhoods are destroyed as they make new buildings and mobilizing the population to areas provisional.

2 .- The city is spreading to the periphery as modern designs and the future, preserving the old city, which will be "old town" of the new city.

3 .- As old buildings are destroyed, built under the new avant-garde designs. This will greatly limit the design of the future city, both in space and in time.

4.-built cities are respected "old" and is seeking new locations for new virgin future cities. It is perhaps the easiest solution, provided there is space for new cities and it is assumed that the ecological cost is the availability of these spaces for cities.

A new city and state of the art

From the last paragraph and build a hypothetical city from scratch, enabling designs to be built according to the vanguard.

This city will be "green", respecting the environment as possible and try to incorporate the latest technological and scientific.

First we must calculate the size and number of inhabitants of the city, these two factors upon the design of the city to do, which predominates in the design space in the horizontal or vertical. Both have advantages and disadvantages. In the horizontal, the city occupies much ground and this, from the ecological point of view is harmful, it can lessen the environmental impact by interspersing lots of green space between buildings, thus adding significantly to the extension of the city. In the vertical, the city will need more energy to keep the huge skyscrapers and the city is more vulnerable to accidents such as landslides, earthquakes, air raids. A mixed solution, perhaps with predominantly vertical in some areas would be ideal. The number of people may revolve around one million.

Continental Maritime City or Town

Secondly you have to find a suitable site, an area that has the resources necessary for the supply of the city. The first action should be drinking water. The city of the future must be capable of self-sufficiency in this vital resource and an appropriate way would be to desalinate sea water for which the village should be located near the coast, which also would bring other advantages, such as a weather ship without strong contrasts in temperature and resources.

Secondly you have to find a suitable site, an area that has the resources necessary for the supply of the city. The first action should be drinking water. The city of the future must be capable of self-sufficiency in this vital resource and an appropriate way would be to desalinate sea water for which the village should be located near the coast, which also would bring other advantages, such as a weather ship without strong contrasts in temperature and resources.

Energy Sources

What would be the energy source that would keep the city? They should be more clean: Wind power, with several fields of windmills on the outskirts of the city, solar energy, with buildings built with solar panels on their roofs, with tidal energy, taking advantage of the coastal location of the city, and above all, Fusion energy using the energy of the stars, is in a clean energy and very powerful, but today the technology involved is not developed enough as it is complex and expensive. It requires sophisticated thermonuclear reactors for hydrogen reacting with each other and merge into helium (as in the stars). The enormous amount of energy formed appropriately be channeled into electrical energy, thermal, etc.. Keep in mind that these reactors will generate very high temperatures, the order of millions of degrees Celsius, which must be neutralized and proper channeling of this immense amount of heat and this heat energy by preventing heat from contaminating the environment, for which, in addition of proper channeling of the heat generated, the walls of the reactors must be highly resistant to heat and must be coupled effective cooling system.

City Space Design

Another issue to be addressed is the design and planning of the city. It is important that the blocks of homes, neighborhoods are grouped by contact with green areas, so that each neighborhood has its own. These towns would be composed of a 10-story buildings separated by roads with trees and with at least one park with trees, grass, flower gardens, pond with ducks, and so on. In a city with one million inhabitants would be 50 neighborhoods or districts of such twenty thousand inhabitants each. In the central area of the city would be the main government buildings, whether they had branches in each district. Centers such as ministerial delegations, City Hall, mail, telephone, central bank, Central Traffic, Central Telecommunication ...

On the outskirts of the metropolis would be the industrial complexes. These would be mainly power plants, construction industries, marine and food industries and science laboratories and technology research. Also there would be a waste treatment center. All these industries would be properly equipped to prevent the contamination and environmental degradation.

Waste disposal

One aspect to consider would be the collection of garbage from homes. This collection should take precedence recycling systems. Several alternatives: Placing various containers in the streets for this system to be effective there should be a lot of containers a block of flats, which would be uncomfortable because all the sidewalks would be filled with these artifacts.

More suitable would be the installation of machines in every home shredders and waste discharges. Destruction programs would have several (glass, organic matter, paper and cardboard, plastics, etc..,) And packaged waste would be shredded by the machine itself and drains to evacuees would go to a network of pipes, which through a system of propulsion displace such waste to underground stations, where they accumulate in various types of tanks. From here would be carried by trucks or other transport systems to the treatment plant of such waste on the outskirts of the city.

The transport system

Fundamental to the health of a city is to organize the transportation system for citizens. Vehicles must meet several conditions: Being low-noise, no pollution and no spaces choke the city. The first two conditions could be met using fuels such as hydrogen and electric current (using batteries). The third condition, strengthening public transport. Doing so may be the extreme and completely delete personal transport.

This all homes would be connected through basements, garages with a communications network similar to the subway underground of large cities. An underground electric taxi service would link the homes with underground platforms. Subway trains would have an electromagnetic propulsion, suspended above magnetic rails. Residents wishing to travel outside the city could do on airplanes or trains high speed surface equivalent to the metro that would come from surface or underground stations. This would remove private cars which clog and pollute in cities.

Under this design, the roadways of the city only bear very certain vehicles such as tourist buses, police patrols, ambulances, etc,. The city would be preferably and predominantly pedestrian green space and recreation.

How would the heating system of homes? Would be used for each building solar panels and other energy sources like wind. The electricity would come from the powerful peripheral power plants fueled by fusion energy, including clean energy.

The interior of the housing

Another aspect to consider: the interior design of homes. The house of the future will be a Smart Home. Means that a home computer and high tech materials. Each home will have a central computer that will handle domestic life, such as heating, cooking appliances (washing machine, dishwasher, refrigerator, ...) lighting of the rooms, and humidified air conditioning, stereos and TV spending drinking water ... In addition there will be robots that carry out various kinds of household cleaning services, also controlled by computer. The walls of the rooms are made of materials that thermal and acoustically isolated to these dwellings and the windows have glass that will spend a certain amount of light and heat as regulated in addition if desired, will not allow outside display that occurs inside the rooms. The central computer housing also regulate the security measures. All computers in the homes are connected to each other in the block of flats to coordinate a range of services: security, accidents, fires, etc..

Renewable energies

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All the countries of the world base their energetic consumption principally on the use of the fossil fuels. This supposes two big problems of which nowadays there are many debates: the great pollution that they generate and their possible depletion because they are not renewable resources.

What has made the energetic industry, the scientific community, the leader classes and us ...?, Apparently, only to consume them every time to major speed and to contaminate more and more fastly our planet, without worrying about solving really this. Nobody is capable of predicting when they go away to end these sources of energy but if there is anything that is clear, is that the sustainable growth of a society is impossible with a finite resource. Sooner or later they' re ended.

Because of it, the solution to this problem is to develop the renewable energies, since they are infinite:

Solar energy: In one year, the Sun emits 4000 thousand times more energy of which we consume all the inhabitants of the world in the same year. They should install solar photovoltaic panels in all the places where there is a sufficient quantity of hours of the Sun. According to Greenpeace's reports, the photovoltaic solar power might give electricity to two thirds of the world population in 2030. So the governments of the most sunny countries of the world must develop this energy.

Wind energy: This energy does not contaminate and is inexhaustible, since the air of the Earth always is in movement. In order that this energy could develop, they must establish windmills in propitious places, as well as the reduction of its cost. Windy areas must bet for wind energy.

Hydroelectric energy: In the hydroelectric head offices, the electricity is generated by means of the kinetic and potential energy of the water, which on having fallen and to move the turbine, moves an electrical generator.This energy can generate an environmental impact if it isn't adapted well to the river in which it is constructed, for what it should realize a previous study of the river in the one that will establish itself.The countries with big and numerous rivers must develop the hydroelectric energy.

Geothermal energy: Is obtained by using the heat inside the Earth. This energy is always present, since the high temperatures are usually constant, so that you can always get energy from this heat.The operation of a geothermal power has a penetration of large produndidad on the earth's crust to obtain a minimum temperature of 150 º C, and in which two tubes were introduced in a closed circuit in direct contact with the heat source. This energy must be developed in areas with porous rock layers and impermeable rock layers, that trap water and steam at high temperature and pressure and prevent them to surface, making it easier to heat removal.


The most common uses are:

  • Sanitary.
  • Various industrial uses such as milk pasteurization.
  • The introduction of heating whole districts and individual houses.
  • Spa.
  • Crops in greenhouses during the snowfall.
  • Reduce the time of growth of fish and crustaceans.

Among its advantages, we can highlight:

  • It is a low cost resource.
  • Contribute to both the generation of energy (electricity produced) and with direct heat uses.
  • Avoids reliance on foreign energy.
  • The waste produced is minimal and cause less environmental impact than fossil fuels (oil, coal, etc.).
  • Do not produce any combustion.

Producing Countries

Many countries using geothermal energy, but only Iceland produces nearly 100% of its energy through the earth's internal heat. Geothermic energy is used by countries like:

  • Portugal
  • USA
  • United Kingdom
  • New Zeland
  • Japan
  • Russia
  • Hungary
  • China
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Turkey
  • Indonesia
  • Chile
  • Italy

Tidal energy: It owes to gravitational forces between the Moon, Earth and the Sun, causing the tides,that is to say, the difference in average height of the seas as the relative position between these three stars. Using hydraulic turbines that intervene in the natural movement of the waters, together with mechanisms of channeling and warehouse, to obtain movement in an axis. It must develop in countries with big tides and in strategic places like gulfs, bays or estuaries.

Biomass energy: It comes from the use of organic matter formed in some biological process, generally, substances which are living organisms or their remains and debris. The utilization of biomass energy is made directly or by conversion into other substances that can be exploited later as fuel. It's important to use only biological sources that aren't needed for another priority use.

Straw is used to generate energy

[about biomass energy]

Even so, it doesn't mean that they do not cause negative effects on the environment, but these are infinitely minor if we compare them with the environmental impacts of the not renewable energies. They are almost always reversible and they contribute to the territorial balance, since they ofen can establish in rural and isolated zones, and they decrease the dependence of external supplies because the fossil fuels only exist in a limited number of countries. The development of these energies will suppose a radical decrease of the greenhouse effect.

Energiasrnvbls.jpg

Waste treatment

There are different types of waste treatment. The main goal is the minimization of material to confine.

Any type of treatment produces non-edible material which needs disposal. For example in the case of burning the final product are the ash with concentrated pollutants and dust and exhaust filters. Both are defined as hazardous waste.

Recycing is a way of dealing with waste

Recycling

Recycling is a process that is present again a subject or a product already used to a cycle of total or partial treatment for a commodity or a new product. Could also be defined as the raw materials from wastes, reintroduced into the cycle of life and occurs at the prospect of depletion of natural resources and eliminate waste efficiently.

Mechanical biological treatment

Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) is a pre-treatment technology for municipal solid waste and special handling. TMB combines the classification and mechanical and biological treatment of the organic part of waste. The main goal is to eliminate pollution to the atmosphere (biogas) and the subsoil (leachate). The biogas potential danger of climate change is 21 times higher than carbon dioxide. With the Kyoto Protocol established a system of certification and marketing of carbon credits which can produce additional revenue which can lower operating costs significantly. TMB is also sometimes called TBM-Mechanical Biological Treatment - though this simply refers to the order of treatment.

Heat Treatment

Known as the heat treatment process after undergoing metals or other solids in order to improve their mechanical properties, especially the hardness, strength and toughness. The materials to applying the heat treatment are basically steel and cast iron, iron and formed carbono.También various heat treatments are applied to ceramic solids.

Zero Waste Treatment

It consists of the construction, commissioning and operation and management audit of a Processing Plant for final disposal of "Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), using them as inputs to a production process in this case, building materials, flooring , infrastructure, etc..

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Reforestation

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The loss of forests is one of the big problems to solving nowadays, since every year million hectares of them are felled in the whole world.

Forests are absolutely necessary to prevent the greenhouse effect, that the soil is degraded and the water cycle and climate are affected. Reforesting the absortion of CO2 is greater, so the quantity of this gas in the atmosphere is minor and less solar radiation is being trapped in the Earth. Trees prevent soil erosion because the roots anchor the soil and prevents it from being degraded by the sun. And they increase the quantity of water steam in the air for the process of perspiration, which does that there are more rainfalls and that the temperature remains stabler.

So that's why we must protect the forests and this are the solutions to stop this:

1. To make aware the whole people of whom the forests must be respected, already be in the colleges to the youngest as by means of campaigns of spreading.

2. That the governments of each country is responsible for investing money in reforestation work, because without political bearing support everything becomes more difficult.

3. Protect the forests and to improve the measures of prevention of fires.

Public transport developement

Public transport is the transport medium in which the passengers do not own these vehicles. Public transport services may be provided by public or private companies.Public transport is far more effective than individual transport in terms of energy consumption, except the plane, which is the most polluting mode of transport per passenger.In proportion to travelers carrying, public transport take up much less space, consume less energy in use, consume fewer resources in its construction, the private car.

  • Public transport within the city

The city councils of cities put at the disposal of the citizens public transportation, transport can be:

-buses: The buses can carry more than 60 people using the same area as two cars.

-rail:Public transport by rail or underground reserved not suffer from problems of congestion.

  • Public transport outside the city

The AVE: The AVE could be half of Spanish fast and secure transport that carries passengers out of town. The AVE can do a tour in 2:30 hours while others trains conventionals can do it in 5h. It also has a capacity of 160 passengers. For example, linking Madrid-Sevilla, Ciudad Real-Puertollano-Cordoba. Tren AVE.jpg

The Future of Transports


Alternative fuels

The bio-petroleum renewable

The bio-petroleum renewable and his creator, Cristian Gomis


The biological oil, renewable and carbon dioxide absorbed in an endless cycle has been created by the company Bio Fuel System (BFS) in Alicante

Is the green algae, contains hundreds of millions of unicellular organisms per cubic milliliter, and it has taken years to several years with the scientific formula of growing in an artificial environment. Not surprisingly, behind the biofuel future are the departments of Biotechnology, Chemical and Marine Sciences at the Universities of Alicante and Valencia.

In these years we have selected some thirty families of algae strains to chlorophyte that has been fed with sunlight, CO2 and a pinch of phosphorus and nitrogen. The result has been that these artificial conditions best, with no extreme changes in temperature or currents or predators, have accelerated their life processes and reproductive rights. If the marine environment, the concentration of these beings is 300 in a cubic milliliter, in the BFS system reaches 200 million. Every day the hundreds of thousands of millions of people are divided into two every 12 hours. Thus biomass is served.

The bio-petroleum BFS has the black color of crude and has no sulfur or heavy metals to be incorporated into their fossilization. Organic matter is only cellulose and silicon membrane.

Every day, milking the cylinder removing half of it is centrifuged, the water is returned to the tank so that double the number of individuals in the next 24 hours and is the organic matter in pulp refining or dry coal .

In BFS achieve that in every two cubic meters of water, produced six kilos per day of biomass. This is thousands of times more than the annual crop of soybean, sunflower and palm, using much less land and less aggressively.

  • The vehicles with alternative fuels are equipments that use fuels different from those who come from the oil.
  • The alternative fuels are formed(trained) by chains of atoms of carbon. The alternative fuels, they have not so much energy.
  • Having in it counts the problems related to the environmental pollution and the energetic world, there becomes necessary increasingly.

the employment of the alternative fuels in the vehicles.

  • Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional or advanced fuels, are any materials or subtances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels. Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coals, propane, and natural gas), and nuclear materials such as uranium.
  • Some well known alternative fuels include biodiesel, bioalcohol (methanol, ethanol, buthanol), chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells); hydrogen, non-fossil mehtane, non-fossiL natural gas, vegetable oil and other biomas sources.

The Magnetic Hybrid Engine

A Japanese vehicle manufacturer unveiled the prototype of a new electric motorbike carrying a hybrid magnetic motor, which can run almost noiselessly up to 180 kilometres (112 miles) on one charge. Tokyo-based Axle Corporation says that the battery of the next-generation electric vehicle motorbike can be charged at home, in the same way as a cellular phone. It takes a little over 6 hours to fully charge the battery, and the vehicle's maximum speed is capable of reaching 150 kilometres per hour.

The company says the futuristic motorbike enjoys high energy efficiency thanks to a state-of-the-art magnetic motor which is a hybrid between a electromagnet and a permanent magnet.

Geographical aspects


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Economical aspects


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Social aspects


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Political aspects


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