Comenius:Solutions - Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 1

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Solutions to the effects of global warming on water management from a geographical point of view...proposed by

Es.gif Group 1

Group 1 is conformed by: Rafael: Yelena Paloma, Andoni, Mari Nieves


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Geographically, we have found two general solutions to combat global warming and prevent the misuse of water: the reduction of greenhouse gases, use of renewable energies and reforestation and the construction of sustainable cities.

Minor emission of greenhouse gases at the transports and at home

to ride the bike

To stop the global warming, the first step to do for the society is of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases and these are the forms of do it:

  • To use the individual alone transport when it would be necessary and promote collective, as the trains or buses. If in addition the bicycle can be in use before that the car or the motorcycle, the emission will be still minor, for what bike lanes should be constructed in all the cities in order to make it easier to ride the bike.
  • Use of domestic appliances, bulbs and electrical devices of low consumption. All those who are made from now on should be respectful with the environment and efficient energetically.
  • Using household electronics only when necessary to avoid waste of energy.
  • Reasonable use of the air conditioning and the heating. For every degree that you increase the temperature of the heating, you can manage to increase the consumption of energy in 5 to 7 per cent and, therefore, in the same proportion the emission of CO2 derived from the consumption. And the air conditioning is worse since the increase is 10 %.
  • The recycling reduces the need of new raw materials to create products and all the process of extraction, transport, production, so energetic expense diminishes on having re-taken advantage of the recycled residues. Likewise, these packings are prevented from finishing in dumps, making problems of environmental impact. For it, the recycling also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
  • Construct more efficient vehicles, as it is increasingly important that consume less fuel and use alternative fuels like the hydrogen, the electricity or the biofuels.


Use of renewable energies

renewable energies

All the countries of the world base their energetic consumption principally on the use of the fossil fuels. This supposes two big problems of which nowadays there are many debates: the great pollution that they generate and their possible depletion because they are not renewable resources.

What it has made the energetic industry, the scientific community, the leader classes and us ...?, Apparently, only to consume them every time to major speed and to contaminate more and more fastly our planet, without worrying about solving really this. Nobody is capable of predicting when they go away to end these sources of energy but if there is anything that is clear, is that the sustainable growth of a society is impossible with a finite resource. Sooner or later they' re ended.

Because of it, the solution to this problem is to develop the renewable energies, since they are infinite:

  • Solar energy: In one year, the Sun emits 4000 thousand times more energy of which we consume all the inhabitants of the world in the same year. They should install solar photovoltaic panels in all the places where there is a sufficient quantity of hours of the Sun. According to Greenpeace's reports, the photovoltaic solar power might give electricity to two thirds of the world population in 2030. So the governments of the most sunny countries of the world must develop this energy.
  • Wind energy: This energy does not contaminate and is inexhaustible, since the air of the Earth always is in movement. In order that this energy could develop, they must establish windmills in propitious places, as well as the reduction of its cost. Windy areas must bet for wind energy.
  • Hydroelectric energy: In the hydroelectric head offices, the electricity is generated by means of the kinetic and potential energy of the water, which on having fallen and to move the turbine, moves an electrical generator.This energy can generate an environmental impact if it isn't adapted well to the river in which it is constructed, for what it should realize a previous study of the river in the one that will establish itself.The countries with big and numerous rivers must develop the hydroelectric energy.
  • Geothermal energy: Is obtained by using the heat inside the Earth. This energy is always present, since the high temperatures are usually constant, so that you can always get energy from this heat.The operation of a geothermal power has a penetration of large produndidad on the earth's crust to obtain a minimum temperature of 150 º C, and in which two tubes were introduced in a closed circuit in direct contact with the heat source. This energy must be developed in areas with porous rock layers and impermeable rock layers, that trap water and steam at high temperature and pressure and prevent them to surface, making it easier to heat removal.
  • Tidal energy: It owes to gravitational forces between the Moon, Earth and the Sun, causing the tides,that is to say, the difference in average height of the seas as the relative position between these three stars. Using hydraulic turbines that intervene in the natural movement of the waters, together with mechanisms of channeling and warehouse, to obtain movement in an axis. It must develop in countries with big tides and in strategic places like gulfs, bays or estuaries.
  • Biomass energy: It comes from the use of organic matter formed in some biological process, generally, substances which are living organisms or their remains and debris. The utilization of biomass energy is made directly or by conversion into other substances that can be exploited later as fuel. It's important to use only biological sources that aren't needed for another priority use.

Even so, it doesn't mean that they do not cause negative effects on the environment, but these are infinitely minor if we compare them with the environmental impacts of the not renewable energies. They are almost always reversible and they contribute to the territorial balance, since they ofen can establish in rural and isolated zones, and they decrease the dependence of external supplies because the fossil fuels only exist in a limited number of countries. The development of these energies will suppose a radical decrease of the greenhouse effect.

Reforestation

life cycle

The loss of forests is one of the big problems to solving nowadays, since every year million hectares of them are felled in the whole world.

Forests are absolutely necessary to prevent the greenhouse effect, that the soil is degraded and the water cycle and climate are affected. Reforesting the absortion of CO2 is greater, so the quantity of this gas in the atmosphere is minor and less solar radiation is being trapped in the Earth. Trees prevent soil erosion because the roots anchor the soil and prevents it from being degraded by the sun. And they increase the quantity of water steam in the air for the process of perspiration, which does that there are more rainfalls and that the temperature remains stabler.

So that's why we must protect the forests and this are the solutions to stop this:

1. To make aware the whole people of whom the forests must be respected, already be in the colleges to the youngest as by means of campaigns of spreading.

2. That the governments of each country is responsible for investing money in reforestation work, because without political bearing support everything becomes more difficult.

3. Protect the forests and to improve the measures of prevention of fires.


Creation of sustainable cities

The city has become more humanized spectacular landscape, where human action reaches its maximum even in areas not visible, such as air composition and climate itself, and other more noticeable as noise, waste aglomeration, congestion, excessive consumption of nonrenewable resources, all of great ecological impact on the environment and its inhabitants.

To stop this, they are creating projects for ecological settlement building or eco-villages around the world to pioneer all of Ecolonia them in the Netherlands. One of the most recent initiatives is the Olympic Village in Sydney (Australia), which was built following energy efficiency criteria and which have reduced energy consumption by 50% compared to urban concentrations of equal size. All Sydney SuperDome's electricity comes from renewables, with a photovoltaic plant of 70 kW. on the roof of the hall connected to the mains. In addition, sustainability has other features such as efficient lighting, use of recycled water, collecting and reusing rainwater, sanitary appliances minimum water consumption and a significant reduction in the use of PVC.

From now on, all the houses that are constructed should follow the model of this type of houses and those already made this type of systems of energetic saving and of water.

Saving and good water use

The growing need for the hydrological balance that assures sufficient supply of water to the population will be achieved by harmonizing the availability of natural resource extraction by using water efficiently.

The sources, the springs, the basins or glens are in intensive route of extinction, there are changes of climate and of soil, floods, droughts and desertification. But it is the most drastic human action: we exercise a delirious deforestation, ignores the traditional knowledge especially of the indigenous local communities, withdraws the water of the rivers in different ways, between others with works of engineering, dams and detours.It is for this that, the management of the resource will have to stretch to avoid troubled situations due to shortage, overexploitation and pollution, by means of preventive measures that try a rational use and of conservation.



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Geographical aspects


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Economical aspects


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Social aspects


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Political aspects


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