Comenius:Solutions - Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 3

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Solutions to the effects of global warming on water management from a geographical point of view...proposed by

Es.gif Group 3

Group 3 is conformed by: Vicent: Marcelo, Mar Patricia, Nuria, Pedro





TABLA

Tablapmi.jpg

File:TABLA PMI.doc


Sustainable urban growth

Proposal: A comprehensive study of the management and optimization of energy in an environment residential within a multi-year program for research, development and evaluation of the elements, techniques and strategies available.

  1. Low temperature thermal energy (Heating, air conditioning, hot water, etc..)
  2. Electricity, chemistry: Generation, storage and hydrogen generation
  3. Materials and construction processes for energy optimization: Insulation, thermal inertia. Phase change materials, etc..
  4. Design. construction and maintenance of quality, cost, benefits: Adaptation to the environment, industrialized construction, automation processes
  5. Housing development with target "zero energy": Projects under implementation


Biodiversity

Protect areas of natural interest in promoting sustainable land use by avoiding fragmentation.

Criteria:

• Encourage the biological connectivity of natural areas through corridors.

• Preserve sensitive areas such as the coastline, rivers and forests through a system of special protection.

• Avoid the waterproofing of floor coverings.

• Controlling the extractive and industrial activities which spoil the landscape.

Compactness

Minimize the consumption of rationalizing land uses.

Promoting dispersed vs. compact

Criteria:

• Ensure the continued growth of urban avoiding isolated areas.

• Maintain a balance between density and public spaces built residence.

• Reorganize mobility networks to enhance the accessibility to alternative transportation: TP and Bicycle

• Plan livable public spaces are comfortable, attractive and accessible.

• Ensure proximity to urban green spaces and green corridors.

Efficiency

Planning to reconcile with the efficiency of energy flows and material cycles, according to the capacity of the territory.

Criteria:

• Reduce the consumption of energy, water and materials.

• Promote recycling and maximum utilization of local resources in order to reduce CO2 emissions.

• Reduce water cycle changes through treatment systems and reuse of reclaimed water.

• Promote the closure of the materials cycle through> absorption of organic matter.

• Ensure that urban area is at <65dBA, <5.000kg Nox and <100grs daily PM10


Complexity

Increased level of organization

Promote productivity and activity in the urban fabric by type and degree of diversity.

Criteria:

• Ensure that central tissues are urban diversity indices> 5bits information per individual.

• Balancing the relationship between roof and ceiling tertiary residential to create sufficient critical mass.

• Planning attractive environments that allow the generation of employment.


Stability

Stable and cohesive social structure

To reconcile urban growth with the population profile of their own socioeconomic requirements.

Criteria:

• Policies for access to housing have to respond to the needs and opportunities to secure the population.

• Urban environments have to ensure accessibility and adequate supply of the population to basic services within a radius less than 300m.

• Figures are planning to promote the mix of incomes, ages, cultures and professions.

• Ensure proximity to quality public spaces such as parks, plazas and pedestrian streets which promote contact and relationship of persons.


Immediate application of the renewable energies

The bio-petroleum renewable

The bio-petroleum renewable and his creator, Cristian Gomis


The biological oil, renewable and carbon dioxide absorbed in an endless cycle has been created by the company Bio Fuel System (BFS) in Alicante

Is the green algae, contains hundreds of millions of unicellular organisms per cubic milliliter, and it has taken years to several years with the scientific formula of growing in an artificial environment. Not surprisingly, behind the biofuel future are the departments of Biotechnology, Chemical and Marine Sciences at the Universities of Alicante and Valencia.

In these years we have selected some thirty families of algae strains to chlorophyte that has been fed with sunlight, CO2 and a pinch of phosphorus and nitrogen. The result has been that these artificial conditions best, with no extreme changes in temperature or currents or predators, have accelerated their life processes and reproductive rights. If the marine environment, the concentration of these beings is 300 in a cubic milliliter, in the BFS system reaches 200 million. Every day the hundreds of thousands of millions of people are divided into two every 12 hours. Thus biomass is served.

The bio-petroleum BFS has the black color of crude and has no sulfur or heavy metals to be incorporated into their fossilization. Organic matter is only cellulose and silicon membrane.

Every day, milking the cylinder removing half of it is centrifuged, the water is returned to the tank so that double the number of individuals in the next 24 hours and is the organic matter in pulp refining or dry coal .

In BFS achieve that in every two cubic meters of water, produced six kilos per day of biomass. This is thousands of times more than the annual crop of soybean, sunflower and palm, using much less land and less aggressively.

Use of biomass energy

Straw is used to generate energy

Biomass is increasingly used in power generation in Europe with Germany as a key issue. Spain is also beginning to realize the potential of the field and produce electricity from this natural resource. Biomass is considered renewable energy because not only is inexhaustible when used in a sustainable way, but it also believes that its CO2 emissions are zero, because CO2 emissions are the same as the CO2 emitted by the plant during growth.

Traditionally, the farmer has always been a problem get rid of the waste generated by their crops, straw, yard trimmings, etc.. Now, all these residues can be used to generate electricity, either at home or at the industrial level.

Acciona opens in Bibriesca (Burgos) an elective generation plant straw-based biomass. The facility will produce 120 million kWh per year, equivalent to 881,000 barrels of oil, or the electricity consumption of 50,000 homes. This avoids the emission of 115,000 tons of CO2. It is true that the straw c have a very low heating power, which requires a great deal of material to get these figures. Specifically, we will need 100,000 tons of straw necessary. Some criticize that the benefits of using biomass to generate electricity is lost when it moved out the material needed for long distances, as in the case of the plant that Acciona has Sangüesa, which has 25 MW.

Acciona is already preparing another plants in Leon, which will have 25 MW and produce 200 million kWh per year and 175,000 tons of biomass burned annually. In this case, fuel will not only straw.

Moreover, agricultural residues are not the only biomass that can be harnessed to produce electricity. Also, and above all, we have forest residues. Forest residues are all plants, twigs and logs that are dried in the forest when the trees are falling branches or die. This is precisely one of the ways in which fires spread: in Spain is not enough forest cleaning, so the fire spreads easily through the forest through forest waste uncollected.

In Guadalajara have learned their lesson in 2005 after 11 people die a checkpoint trying to extinguish a large fire in the region. As a result. Since then, the area is said that 'the forest fire shuts down in winter', referring to the season in which forests are cleaned. As a result of the efforts of the institutions of the province, Iberdrola will open a biomass plant in Corduente 2 MW, which used only waste from forest cleaning.


Waste treatment'

There are different types of waste treatment. The main goal is the minimization of material to confine.

Any type of treatment produces non-edible material which needs disposal. For example in the case of burning the final product are the ash with concentrated pollutants and dust and exhaust filters. Both are defined as hazardous waste.

Recycling

Recycling is a process that is present again a subject or a product already used to a cycle of total or partial treatment for a commodity or a new product. Could also be defined as the raw materials from wastes, reintroduced into the cycle of life and occurs at the prospect of depletion of natural resources and eliminate waste efficiently.

Mechanical biological treatment

Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) is a pre-treatment technology for municipal solid waste and special handling. TMB combines the classification and mechanical and biological treatment of the organic part of waste. The main goal is to eliminate pollution to the atmosphere (biogas) and the subsoil (leachate). The biogas potential danger of climate change is 21 times higher than carbon dioxide. With the Kyoto Protocol established a system of certification and marketing of carbon credits which can produce additional revenue which can lower operating costs significantly. TMB is also sometimes called TBM-Mechanical Biological Treatment - though this simply refers to the order of treatment.

Heat Treatment

Known as the heat treatment process after undergoing metals or other solids in order to improve their mechanical properties, especially the hardness, strength and toughness. The materials to applying the heat treatment are basically steel and cast iron, iron and formed carbono.También various heat treatments are applied to ceramic solids.

Zero Waste Treatment

It consists of the construction, commissioning and operation and management audit of a Processing Plant for final disposal of "Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), using them as inputs to a production process in this case, building materials, flooring , infrastructure, etc..






Geographical aspects


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Economical aspects


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Social aspects


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Political aspects


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