Comenius:Solutions - Political aspects/Spain/Group 1

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Solutions to the effects of global warming on water management from a political point of view...proposed by

Es.gif Group 1

Group 1 is conformed by: Carmen: María, María Z, Francisco




'POLITICAL ASPECTS The politics of global warming have involved policy decisions, legislation, and political debate over the science of and response to global warming. The political struggle over global warming has involved various governmental bodies, special-interest groups, and scientific organizations. In some countries the political right are fighting on a platform of taking tough action against global warming, while in others the political right either dispute the scientific consensus on global warming or oppose action to mitigate global warming, instead favoring adaption. All European countries have ratified the kyoto protocol, and all have supported strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In the United States, a February 2007 survey found that 95% of the 41 Congressional Democrats surveyed agreed "it's been proven beyond a reasonable doubt that the Earth is warming because of man-made problems" while only 13% of the 31 Republicans surveyed agreed.


Political solutions

Political action can change laws and regulations that relate to climate change, such as tax incentives, greenhouse gas emissions limits or establishing a regulatory framework within which carbon trading markets can operate. Political action can also gain media and public attention to climate change. Political action from the community, however, is often challenged by interests within the fossil fuel industry. Some climate change sceptic groups are independent of the fossil fuel industry, such as the Australian Youth Climate Change Council (AYCCC)

There are many forms of political action on climate change including letter writing, direct lobbying, and public shaming of politicians and media organizations. Political action campaigns require building a base of support at local level.

The political leaders of the world that gathered in Copenhagen had the unenviable responsibility of forging a strategy to pull humankind back from the brink of a dire future. What ultimately will come from this meeting is uncertain, but whatever occurs, the challenge ahead is immense. According to conservative climate change science, we need to stabilize concentrations of carbon dioxide at 400 ppm and then begin reducing it to 350 ppm to avoid triggering a cascading set of irreversible tipping points. To be successful in this task requires us to develop a solution to achieve by 2020 what the current treaty being negotiated hopes to achieve by 2050 an 80 percent reduction in CO2 emissions. The scale and speed of change required goes well beyond anything political leaders have ever had to contemplate, much less achieve. And even if the political will were there to achieve this level and speed of carbon reduction, the social change 1.0 tools at their disposal command and control, and financial incentives are not designed for this type of rapid, transformative change. They were purposely designed over two centuries ago for gradual, incremental change.


Renewable energy Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished. . New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.4% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3.4% from new renewables.Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 157,900 megawatts (MW) in 2009.

Technological investments


Water distribution Management of the water: about 2030 Next 30 years will raise new challenges. With the demographic growth - about of 8 300 million persons for the year 2030-the agriculture will have to adapt to the modification of the guidelines of the food demand, attack the food insecurity and the poverty in the rural zones and to compete for the scanty water resources with other users. To satisfy these diverse demands, the FAO thinks that the agricultural policies will have to liberate the potential of the practices of management of the water to increase the productivity, to promote an equitable access to the water and to preserve the basic resources.He proposes a strategy to reinvent the management of the water in the agricultural sector, from the modernization of the infrastructure of irrigation and the pertinent institutions, the full participation of the users of the water in the distribution of the costs and the benefits, and the impulse to the scanty investment in decisive sectors of the chain of the agricultural production.

Corruption

Political corruption is the misuse of public power to obtain an unfair advantage, usually secret and private.

Political corruption is a global reality, his level of tolerance or evidence combat the political maturity of each country. For the same reason there are national and international bodies, official and private, with a mission to monitor the level of administrative corruption internationally. Corruption, contrary to what one might think initially, it's not just the responsibility of the official sector, the state or the government of the day, but includes in particular the private sector.
Corruption levels


The greatest impact of corruption is on the poor, those least able to absorb the costs. Corruption affects the quality and cost of basic services such as issuing of official documentation, education, health and transportation for most people that just depends whether they are public. Not only erodes development aid from international institutions and national states themselves, but also has deeper consequences that are related to the reduction of investment in the economy and the negative impact it has on their growth.


As a long-term effects are increased social inequality and lack of respect for human rights. Since corruption mainly benefits those who can afford it, enriching, and leaving aside those who can not. It also undermines the respect for Human Rights to diminish the respect to the general rules by public officials, prompting the abuse of authority, and to generate a circle of complicity that prevent the action under the law of one or more of them, and even his public denunciation.
Nuclear cemetery

Nuclear cemeteries

Nuclear cemetery refers to any place used to store radioactive residues produced in nuclear reactions, independently of his(her,your) nature and of the type of stored residue. The radioactive residues normally consist of a series of radioisótopos: unstable configurations of the elements that express(emit) radiations ionizantes that can be harmful to the human health and the environment. The isotopes express(emit) different types and levels of radiation, during different periods from time for each of them. Under the generic term nuclear cemetery they find the different locations that have been looked to lodge this type of materials, and that have been determined by the type of radiation of the residues. Are considered to be nuclear cemeteries the stores of residues of low activity, the temporary stores, the geological deep stores and the zones of the oceanic bed used for the spillage of radioactive residues, named in occasions submarine stores.


Water conflicts

  • jordan conflict:

After the Second World War is the state of Israel on Palestinian land and they conflict with the Jewish people and Arabic. One reason for war was the distribution of water resources of Palestine and much of their territory was outside the Jordan Basin and the corresponding ground was very dry, which negatively affected the agricultural exploration. Jews also divert water from the Jordan to his land through the National Water Carrier, which leaves the Palestinian people with less water and lower quality. Since then negotiations on water has two aspects, political and technical.




Geographical aspects


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Economical aspects


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Social aspects


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Political aspects


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