Group 3 is conformed by: Claudia: Vicente, Alicia, Angelina
CUMBRE DE COPENHAGE
What is the summit of copenhage?
The summit of Copenhagen in which representatives of 192 countries and diverse organizations discuss the current condition of the problem of the climatic change, they redefine aimswith a view to the short, medium and long term and they try to establish lines of action on a worldwide scale.
The climatic change is maybe the problem of major importance that faces our planet, and year after year the things deteriorate to a point that to handle his effects is turning out to be an untenable task. With a Protocol of expired and already very trampled Tokyo, this summit can be important with a view to the managing of the climatic global situation.
Which are three basic beginning?
Emission of CO2. They will try to establish the lines of action to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and gases of the greenhouse effect worldwide, particularly in developed countries.
Financial support. The financial assistance will be discussed to developing countries to help to mitigate his influence in the climatic change and to help him to adapt them to the new perspectives.
Deforestation. One will try to design a new scheme of trade that avoids the destruction of the forests of our planet with a view to the year 2030.
According to my opinion, if has not come near to important agreements for different motives.
For the world developed (E.U. and C.EUROPEA) the change of energetic model supposes many expenses in full economic crisis, and for the emergent countries (China and India .. etc.) to save energy, in full expansive industrial phase for the first time in his history, a serious setback to his perspectives of growth.
THE WAR FOR THE WATER
The utilization of the water affects the relations inside and out of the nations; between rural and urban populations; between be interested upstream and downstream; between the sectors agriculturalist, manufacturer and I domesticate; and between the human needs and the requirements of a healthy environment. It is for it that the sweet water will be the motive of many wars in the world for his access and control be disputing. From the year 805 they are had documented mas of 3,600 agreements concerning) the water in aspects of navigation, electric power, fishing, irrigation of cultures, delimiting of borders, accesses to springs, etc.
There exist 261 slopes that cross political borders of two or more countries which are in 145 countries.
In the Area of Free Trade of the Americas (RAZORBILL) the water has turned into a matter of national safety for the government of the United States. The North American companies invade the territory buying and controlling all the strategic resources with the help of the military bases of The United States.
In the report of the Banco Mundial, Independent Water Entrepreneurs in Latin America - The other deprive your sector in water closet services, offer an analysis of the private companies in the sector of the water in Latin America: Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Guatemala, Paraguay and Peru.
It is necessary that the basic service of the water is kept as a common good and not deprived not commercial. It is important to avoid that the water this one under the control, domain and exclusive possession and economic benefit of the private initiative. It is not possible to leave in private hands so many responsibility on the life of the whole humanity.
The previous thing means that the water is not a problem in if same, but the problem is the model of development who uses her. We would not have water problems if there was no so many deforestation product of the plantations of monocultures on a large scale, or of the felling million of hectares of forests to satisfy the market of the paper wasted in the countries of the north. We would not also have problems of the water if we were not repressing so many rivers to justify. The water supply to the big cities that waste them in the pipelines or in the evil I use of the resource, It is necessary to recover traditional forms of captation of the water; of generating systems decentralized in the field and of an economic model generates sustentable. Many people think that we all have to pay for the water that we use.? Is it possible to compare the consumption of the water to the consumption of any another product, good or service?? Is it possible to ask the poor population for this? Tomorrow the big transnational ones will say to us that after having contaminated the air of all, the air of the necessary planet to survive the entire humanity and any form of life that in her he lives, they are going to purify it and in addition there will be necessary to pay them for cleaning the air after which they have contaminated it.
The political corruption is the evil public use of the power to obtain an illegitimate, generally secret and private advantage. All the types of government are capable to the political corruption. The forms of corruption change, but the most common are the illegitimate use of privileged information.
The corruption facilitates often another type of criminal facts as the traffic of drugs, the wash of money and the illegal prostitution; though it is not restricted to these organized crimes, and not always it supports or protects other crimes.
The political corruption is a world reality; his level of tolerance or of combat demonstrates the political maturity of every country. There exist national and international, official and private entities,
The corruption, contrary to what might be thought initially, is not only a responsibility of the official sector, of the State or of the Government of shift, but it includes very specially to the private sector.
Effects in policies, administration and institutions
The corruption raises a serious challenge of change. The corruption in choices and in the legislature increases the lack of credibility and distorts the capacity of creation of new procedure; Another problem is that to facilitate the Corruption, it is necessary to establish systems of Justice that encourage the Impunity,
Levels of corruption and transparency
One of the international organizations who monitors the level of corruption and transparency in 180 conditions of the world is An International Transparency, with sedate in Berlin,
In agreement with the report of 2008,the countries with the highest level of transparency of the world and that were occupying the first position with a punctuation of 9,3 were Denmark, New Zealand and Sweden. On the other hand, the conditions with the level of political transparency more down the world and that were occupying the positions 178 to 180 were Iraq, Burma (both with 1,3 of qualification) and Somalia, with 1,0.
That are making the politicians to avoid the climatic change?
Undoubtedly, the global warming is the most serious environmental problem which we will face in this century and which has been propitiated by the untenable human activity. The experts predict that it will provoke multiple and serious ecological disorders in the planet; so much it is so some of the big natural catastrophes that have happened in the last years have been associated with this phenomenon.
The commitment of the citizenship in general, including entities, organizations, Public Administrations and others it is fundamental to manage to stop the Climatic Change, that undoubtedly, it threatens the survival of the human being in the Earth.
Ecologists in Action it requested last summer to the Town hall of Cordoba that was associated with the Spanish Network of Cities by the Climate; this initiative is born of the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces, of which our mayor is A Vice-president 2 ª of the same one, and the Department of Environment; with this Network there is tried that the municipalities assume his responsibility in the fulfillment of the ratified one for the Spanish State, Kyoto's Protocol, and adopt measures in order that to local level, one fights against the Climatic Change.
But apparently this type of offers he is not interested the political officers of the council native of Cordoba. The transversalidad and the seriousness of the política ambiental of the Town hall of Cordova shine for his absence; there is demonstrated that the scanty one and almost non-existent environmental initiative of this one is manifest enclosedly when there is done to him an external offer, which only has to take up office and expire; also it stops to see the disability of our town hall to assume commitments, since it could be this one, which has been scorned by our political officers for not feeling capable of carrying out responsible environment policies, situation that comes to demonstrate the untenable management and small environmental sensibility of our town hall.
Both big cities of Andalusia, Seville and Malaga already have stuck fast to this Network. Municipalities of the province like Montilla, Priego of Cordoba, The Victory, Fernán-Nuñez, Montoro and Puente-Genil also have done it. We hope that the example spreads also in the Town hall of Cordoba, and be capable of taking up office and fulfilling this commitment with the environment and the humanity.
How to save energy?
To save energy means to reduce his consumption obtaining the same results that spending more. To diminish the expense of energy endures many benefits, saves money and protects the environment. To generate energy supposes benefiting from a few natural precious sources as the coal, the oil or the gas.
Why is it important to save energy? If the people spend less energy, it diminishes the pressure of increasing the supply, of constructing new head offices of energy, or of importing energy of other countries. What does mean " cycle of life "? What has it to see with the expense of energy?
Almost all the products of daily use generate an energetic impact, which is demonstrated bearing in mind the energy that they spend along his vital cycle: production, utilization and term. In most cases the most important phase is the useful life. In case of the plastic ones, for example, they are one of the materials of major energetic performance that they exist. In the phase of utilization, the products of plastic help to save more energy that the one that needs to make them An example: on having chosen a bottle of water packed in a light material as the plastic, it is necessary to remember that the more light is the packing, less energy becomes exhausted in transporting it. With which, the truck that transports these bottles of plastic needs less fuel to work. What can we do to save energy? In Internet there are many informative pages that propose ideas to save energy. Some offers are:
To change the way of locomotion, to use more the public transport, or if it is possible to leave the car and to go by foot or in bicycle To reduce the heating of the house 1ºC, the windows to close while beech heating, to take hot clothes To choose products with packings that weigh little To extinguish the lights and the plugs when they are not in use, to use bulbs of low energetic expense To re-use the carrier bags. To use the microwave instead of the oven to warm the food To use rechargeable batteries instead of disposable What effect have they the materials in the environment? In our daily life we use many materials: the wood, the metal, the glass and the plastic ones, all with consequences in the environment; we must be conscious of these consequences. The less itweighs a product, fewer fuel needs to transport it. A suitcase weighed in the trunk represents to spend more fuel. The same thing happens with all the packings. Therefore, to buy food without packing or with the light one helps to protect the environment.
Is an operation in the area of the forestry destined to repopulate zones that in the past were covered of forests that have been eliminated for diverse motives since can be:
-Exploitation of the wood for industrial ends and / or for consumption like plants,
-Extension of the agricultural or cattle border. -Extension of rural areas
Aims of the reforestation The reforestation can be orientated to:
-To improve the performance of the hydrographic basin.
-Production of wood for industrial ends
-. To create protection areas for the cattle, in systems of extensive production.
-To create barriers against the wind for protection of cultures.
- To stop the advance of the dunes of sand.
- To provide wood for use as domestic fuel
To create recreative areas.
Though it is possible to say that the reforestation at first is a charitable activity, from the point of view of the environment, there exists the possibility that also produces environmental negative impacts.
Since derivatives of the activity of reforestation can develop activities related with:
-Production of plants.
-Production of wood, flesh of cellulose, posts, fruit, fibers and fuels.
Councils for save water and money of an individual way:
-Install in the tank of the watercloset you cover of din to save from.5 to 1.5 gallons for pulled. Install heads of watering-can of low flow.
-Install in his tank of the watercloset cycles of filling turned aside to preserve up to a gallon for pulled without the difference is obvious.
- Limit itself to taking showers of five minutes or less. Reducing the time in a minute it can save 2,000 gallons a year.
-Use only his dishwasher to his maximum capacity. From 1990, the majority of the manufacturers of washers make machines of efficient use of water, when they are used to his maximum capacity, using less than 10 gallons for washed.
-Consider to replace his washer by a washer of high efficiency. You can save the half of the water consumption and electricity in every washed one.
-The jet does not use to wash the vegetables, since a lot of liquid is wasted. It is preferable that uses a packing where he washes them all together. Then it can use the water that I use to water the plants.
-The watercloset does not use as rubish, since for every unload 30 liters of water become exhausted.
Boat ashes, fluffs and other wastes in the containers destined for such an end.
-Plan the washed one of the clothes. For every load in the washer 200 liters of water become exhausted, for what it is better to expect to have sufficient articles to fill it.
-With the just quantity of detergent it becomes exhausted less on having rinsed and the environment looks after itself. If the final water does not have soap, it can use her to water the plants or to wash the floor.
-On having cooked, measure well the water quantity that it needs to boil. If it fills the container beyond the necessary thing the liquid will be wasted on the kitchen and by means of the evaporation. If it covers the pot, he will boil more rapid, and remember to extinguish the flame scarcely the boiling is completed.
-Foment in the members of the family the habit of the teeth brushing itself using only a water glass. It will preserve 13 liters of the vital liquid for occasion and will pay less to the end of month. Remember to close the jet while one soaps the hands.
-To wash to hand is one of the domestic activities in which water becomes exhausted more, if care is not had. Because of it, when hewashes the clothes, do not stop to traverse the water while it does it. A barreño uses to soap his cloths, and then rinse them with the cold water that goes out of the jet. Use the same procedure with the plates and the kitchen utensils.
-Do not suffer if his car is dirty; it can wash it, but do it warily. Use two tobos, one to soap and other one to rinse. If it does it with hose do not forget to place a regulatory, like that pistol it will any more water of the due one. Take advantage of the opportunity to clean the front of his house, with what it will kill two birds of one only I throw.
-The measures to save water will not be productive if they are fulfilled by a simple imposition of the chief of the home. It is important that it is explained to all the inhabitants of the house why of the saving of the valued liquid The benefits are different: water disposition in more time, minor account for paying also in receipts of
electricity and conscience.
Venezuela and the Environment:
Environment policies and Plans
The Department of the Environment Natural Renewable Resources (MARN), it is the organ designated by the National Executive to execute the policies in matter Environmental Way designated by this one, inside the limits that it(he,she) establishes the National Constitution and the Laws of the Republic.
The MARN executes nowadays, projects of environmental, social and economic scope in priority areas for the development of the country;
Example of it constitutes it the National Strategy of Biological Diversity, the project Conservation and Use of the Biological Diversity of the Reservation of Biosphere and the Humedales of the Delta of the Orinoco, executed by the National Office of Biological Diversity, the production of the First National Communication on Cambio Climático, Construction of capacities for the phase the IInd of the evaluations of vulnerability and adjustment to the climatic change; Consolidation of a System of Public and Private Representation, for the World Fund for the Environment in Latin America and the Carib: Regional Promotion of the Environmental Global Protection across the Electronic Means of Diffusion, between others.
Programs and Projects:
- National Plan of Land management.
- National Plan of Conservation.
- National Plan of Conservation.
- Defense and Improvement of the Environment.
The Plan IX of the Nation includes:
a) Seven big strategic projects that are employed at the sustainable utilization of the natural competitive resources and at the urgency for achieving consensuses and commitments between the social forces.
b) Three governing beginning: the participation of the sector deprived in the investments, the community participation and the governing action, promoter and facilitadora of the State; and
c) complementary Actions for: the strengthening of the Programs I Develop Sustentable of the South, The Orinoco - purifies and Frontier Development; and the attraction and accession of the human resources will need the productive processes related to the Leading Groups of Activity.
International organizations and Environment:
1)United Nations Organization for the Education, the Science and the Culture (UNESCO): there is received the cooperation of this organization for the final stage of the Plan of Action of the National Park Canaima, this phase with which our country expires with the commitment acquired before the Bureau of the Committee of World Patrimony, of promoting the development of national policies, orientated to the conservation of the National Park Canaima as site of World Natural Patrimony. His scope this one directed to achieving the participation of the indigenous and local communities in the management of conservation and managing of the area. (I mount: US $ 30.000). The National Institute of National Parks is the instance of execution of the Plan of Action.
2)Interamericano of Development: Strengthening for the application of the regime of access to the genetic resources in countries members of the Andean Community; marine shared Resources of the big aquatic ecosystems of the Caribeen.
3)European Union: there are executing studies of managing and conservation of basins, which are on the responsibility of the local authorities. With the European Union, the projects of Feasibility for the Company of Wine-growing Products, of Feasibility for the Production of Free Eggs of Pathogenic Agents and of Rural Fish farming in Central Región of the country and in the condition Barinas. As for trade there was executed the project of Strengthening of the Promotion and service of the Not traditional Exports (1995).
Agency of Spanish Cooperation (AECI): It was continued by the execution, on the part of the Only Authority
of Area National Park Archipelago The Roques, of the " Program I Araucaria-project The Roques ", who in his second phase contemplates the improvement of the tourist capacity of the national park and the conservation of his coral
ecosystem , one of the most important of the area of the Carib (Amount of the second phase: US $ 300.000. For a whole on three US's phases $ 1.000.000) .Este project is destined to support technically the organization and community work fishermen and tourist guides, between others, by the firm intention of improving his quality of life and to incorporate them actively into the environmental conservation of the park.
ALBUM DE FOTOS
All the radioactive residues of average and low activity are stored in The Cabril.
The residues are stored in surface and not in deep silos under land, in a model of installation imported from France.
The nuclear power stations as well as the hospitals, the universities and the laboratories generate of the order of approximately 3.000 cans to the year of contaminated radioactive material, which they are sent to The Cabril. The Cabril, it is to the half of his capacity. Of the present pace of storage being kept, concerning the year 2030 there will be colmatado his capacity, insufficient time in order that the longed nuclear power stations of merger, much cleaner, they work. But until the day in which these work fullly, it seems to be that the only alternative happens for the isolation of these radioactive residues in a kind of cells of concrete, made to test of earthquakes, hoping that the radiations are going out with the passage of time.
The problem of the radioactive residues the nuclear power, it continues without finding a totally satisfactory solution to the problem of his residues. The safety unfolding in The Cabril also is maximum.
Of an accident taking place, the group of Radiological Intervention would be the manager of the evacuation of the personnel in conformity with an established plan and of the later decontamination of the facilities.
This center of nuclear residues already this to 50 %, for what it is necessary to look for a solution that is sustainable.
For the near future there is appearing the new energy of merger, with which there will no be radioactive residues.
The fission is the break of atoms of uranium, it provokes energy on having divided the atomic links but in addition it generates quantity of nuclear residues that perform very harmful to the health.
The merger is the union of 2 atoms, in general deuterium or tritio in an atom of helium. This process does not generate any radioactive residue.