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--Es.gif Andoni 12:33, 9 March 2010 (UTC)

CITY OF THE FUTURE

Introduction

What will the city of the future? To build a city as perfect as possible should take into account a number of principles:

1 .- will have to be from virgin areas where there are no cities or destroy the imperfect parts of them and hamper the new designs.

2 .- should be taken into account to avoid damaging the environment or do as little as possible. In other words, you must be a city "green."

3 .- have to be designed in accordance with the latest advances in science and technology.

Alternatives

The first principle is the most controversial: Can not raze the cities for obvious reasons, what is done with the population of the city while building the new? What do you do with the art buildings (sometimes entire neighborhoods)? They are the culture of peoples and civilizations. There are some intermediate alternatives:

1 .- preserve artistic and cultural areas and other neighborhoods are destroyed as they make new buildings and mobilizing the population to areas provisional.

2 .- The city is spreading to the periphery as modern designs and the future, preserving the old city, which will be "old town" of the new city.

3 .- As old buildings are destroyed, built under the new avant-garde designs. This will greatly limit the design of the future city, both in space and in time.

4.-built cities are respected "old" and is seeking new locations for new virgin future cities. It is perhaps the easiest solution, provided there is space for new cities and it is assumed that the ecological cost is the availability of these spaces for cities.

A new city and state of the art

From the last paragraph and build a hypothetical city from scratch, enabling designs to be built according to the vanguard.

This city will be "green", respecting the environment as possible and try to incorporate the latest technological and scientific.

First we must calculate the size and number of inhabitants of the city, these two factors upon the design of the city to do, which predominates in the design space in the horizontal or vertical. Both have advantages and disadvantages. In the horizontal, the city occupies much ground and this, from the ecological point of view is harmful, it can lessen the environmental impact by interspersing lots of green space between buildings, thus adding significantly to the extension of the city. In the vertical, the city will need more energy to keep the huge skyscrapers and the city is more vulnerable to accidents such as landslides, earthquakes, air raids. A mixed solution, perhaps with predominantly vertical in some areas would be ideal. The number of people may revolve around one million.

Continental Maritime City or Town

Secondly you have to find a suitable site, an area that has the resources necessary for the supply of the city. The first action should be drinking water. The city of the future must be capable of self-sufficiency in this vital resource and an appropriate way would be to desalinate sea water for which the village should be located near the coast, which also would bring other advantages, such as a weather ship without strong contrasts in temperature and resources.

Secondly you have to find a suitable site, an area that has the resources necessary for the supply of the city. The first action should be drinking water. The city of the future must be capable of self-sufficiency in this vital resource and an appropriate way would be to desalinate sea water for which the village should be located near the coast, which also would bring other advantages, such as a weather ship without strong contrasts in temperature and resources.

Energy Sources

What would be the energy source that would keep the city? They should be more clean: Wind power, with several fields of windmills on the outskirts of the city, solar energy, with buildings built with solar panels on their roofs, with tidal energy, taking advantage of the coastal location of the city, and above all, Fusion energy using the energy of the stars, is in a clean energy and very powerful, but today the technology involved is not developed enough as it is complex and expensive. It requires sophisticated thermonuclear reactors for hydrogen reacting with each other and merge into helium (as in the stars). The enormous amount of energy formed appropriately be channeled into electrical energy, thermal, etc.. Keep in mind that these reactors will generate very high temperatures, the order of millions of degrees Celsius, which must be neutralized and proper channeling of this immense amount of heat and this heat energy by preventing heat from contaminating the environment, for which, in addition of proper channeling of the heat generated, the walls of the reactors must be highly resistant to heat and must be coupled effective cooling system.

City Space Design

Another issue to be addressed is the design and planning of the city. It is important that the blocks of homes, neighborhoods are grouped by contact with green areas, so that each neighborhood has its own. These towns would be composed of a 10-story buildings separated by roads with trees and with at least one park with trees, grass, flower gardens, pond with ducks, and so on., And kindergarten. In these neighborhoods have one or more shopping centers, independent stores and private businesses in addition would have a secondary school and one or several schools. It would also have a cultural center with theaters, theater, music and more., And religious centers, plus one or several sports complexes. In a city with one million inhabitants would be 50 neighborhoods or districts of such twenty thousand inhabitants each. In the central area of the city would be the main government buildings, whether they had branches in each district. Centers such as ministerial delegations, City Hall, mail, telephone, central bank, Central Traffic, Central Telecommunication ...

On the outskirts of the metropolis would be the industrial complexes. These would be mainly power plants, construction industries, marine and food industries and science laboratories and technology research. Also there would be a waste treatment center. All these industries would be properly equipped to prevent the contamination and environmental degradation.

Waste disposal

One aspect to consider would be the collection of garbage from homes. This collection should take precedence recycling systems. Several alternatives: Placing various containers in the streets for this system to be effective there should be a lot of containers a block of flats, which would be uncomfortable because all the sidewalks would be filled with these artifacts.

More suitable would be the installation of machines in every home shredders and waste discharges. Destruction programs would have several (glass, organic matter, paper and cardboard, plastics, etc..,) And packaged waste would be shredded by the machine itself and drains to evacuees would go to a network of pipes, which through a system of propulsion displace such waste to underground stations, where they accumulate in various types of tanks. From here would be carried by trucks or other transport systems to the treatment plant of such waste on the outskirts of the city.

The transport system

Fundamental to the health of a city is to organize the transportation system for citizens. Vehicles must meet several conditions: Being low-noise, no pollution and no spaces choke the city. The first two conditions could be met using fuels such as hydrogen and electric current (using batteries). The third condition, strengthening public transport. Doing so may be the extreme and completely delete personal transport.

This all homes would be connected through basements, garages with a communications network similar to the subway underground of large cities. An underground electric taxi service would link the homes with underground platforms. Subway trains would have an electromagnetic propulsion, suspended above magnetic rails. Residents wishing to travel outside the city could do on airplanes or trains high speed surface equivalent to the metro that would come from surface or underground stations. This would remove private cars which clog and pollute in cities.

Under this design, the roadways of the city only bear very certain vehicles such as tourist buses, police patrols, ambulances, etc,. The city would be preferably and predominantly pedestrian green space and recreation.

How would the heating system of homes? Would be used for each building solar panels and other energy sources like wind. The electricity would come from the powerful peripheral power plants fueled by fusion energy, including clean energy.

The interior of the housing

Another aspect to consider: the interior design of homes. The house of the future will be a Smart Home. Means that a home computer and high tech materials. Each home will have a central computer that will handle domestic life, such as heating, cooking appliances (washing machine, dishwasher, refrigerator, ...) lighting of the rooms, and humidified air conditioning, stereos and TV spending drinking water ... In addition there will be robots that carry out various kinds of household cleaning services, also controlled by computer. The walls of the rooms are made of materials that thermal and acoustically isolated to these dwellings and the windows have glass that will spend a certain amount of light and heat as regulated in addition if desired, will not allow outside display that occurs inside the rooms. The central computer housing also regulate the security measures. All computers in the homes are connected to each other in the block of flats to coordinate a range of services: security, accidents, fires, etc..

CLIMATIC CHANGE

climate change impacts in the future

Reduce the impact at home

Most emissions from homes are from burning fossil fuels to generate electricity and heat. Using energy more efficiently at home, you can reduce your emissions and lower the cost of your electricity bill by over 30% Moreover, since agriculture is responsible for about a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions, can reduce your emissions simply by watching what you eat.

Here's how:

Replace regular incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps CFLs use 60% less energy than a regular bulb. This simple switch will save 300 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. If each family, for example, in the United States made the switch, will reduce carbon dioxide by more than 90 billion pounds! CFLs are sold in most supermarkets.

Move your thermostat down 2 ° F in winter and up 2 ° in summer Nearly half of the energy we use in our homes goes to heating and cooling. You can save 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year with this simple adjustment. Clean or replace filters on your furnace and your air conditioning Cleaning a dirty air filter can save 350 pounds of carbon dioxide per year.

Install a programmable thermostat Programmable thermostats will automatically lower the air conditioning at night and raise them again in the morning. They can save you $ 100 per year on your electricity bill (in dollars)

Choose energy efficient appliances when making new purchases Look for the Energy Star label on new appliances to choose the most efficient models. If every household in America replaced its existing appliances with more efficient models available, it would eliminate 175 tons of carbon dioxide every year!

Put insulation to your water heater Save 1,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year with this simple action. You can save another 550 pounds per year by setting the thermostat no higher than 120 degrees Fahrenheit.

Use less hot water It uses lots of energy to heat water. You can use less hot water by installing a showerhead low flow (350 pounds of carbon dioxide per year) and washing your clothes in cold or warm water instead of hot water (500 pounds saved per year)

Use a clothesline instead of a dryer whenever possible You can save 700 pounds of carbon dioxide when you air dry your clothes for 6 months.

Turn off electronic devices are not using Simply turning off your television, DVD player, stereo and computer when you're not using will save thousands of pounds of carbon dioxide a year.

Unplug electronics from the wall when not in use Even when turned off, things like hairdryers, cell phone chargers and televisions use energy. In fact, the energy used to keep display clocks lit and memory chips working accounts for 5% of total domestic energy consumption and spews 18 million tons of carbon into the atmosphere every year!

Use your dishwasher only when a full load and use the energy saving mode. You can save 100 pounds of carbon dioxide per year

For insulation to your home. Properly insulate your walls and ceilings can save 25% on your home heating bill and 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. Sealing and plugging holes around doors and windows can save another 1,700 pounds per year.

Make sure you recycle at home You can save 2400 pounds of carbon dioxide per year by recycling half your household waste generated.

Purchase recycled paper products It uses less than 70 to 90% energy to make recycled paper and prevents the loss of forests.

Plant a tree A single tree will absorb one tonne of carbon dioxide in its lifetime. Shade provided by trees can also help reduce your home heating bill by 10 to 15%.

Buy locally On average, food in America travels 1200 miles from farm to the kitchen where food is prepared. In other countries, something similar happens. Buying local produce will save fuel in transport and hold the money in your community.

Buy fresh foods instead of frozen Frozen food 10 times more energy used to produce it.

Buy organic foods whenever possible. Organic soils capture and store carbon dioxide at much higher levels than conventional farms. If we produce it organically our corn and beans, would remove 580 billion pounds of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Avoid products with heavy packaging. You can save 1200 pounds of carbon dioxide if you lower your garbage by 10%.

Eat less meat Methane is the second most significant greenhouse gas and cows are one of the largest emitters of methane. The diet of grass and makes their multiple stomachs produce methane, which they exhale with every breath.

Reduce your impact When you move Nearly a third of the carbon dioxide produced in the U.S. (and similarly in the world) comes from our cars, trucks and planes. Here are some simple, practical things you can do to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide you produce when you travel. Reduce the number of miles you drive by walking, bicycling, sharing your car or using public transportation whenever possible. Avoiding just 10 miles of driving every week would eliminate about 500 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions a year!

List your vehicle with your colleagues or school. Sharing a carriage with someone just 2 days a week will reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in 1590 pounds in a year

Keep your car well-tuned Regular maintenance helps improve fuel efficiency fuel and reduces emissions. With only 1% of the owners of the vehicles properly maintained, almost one billion pounds of carbon dioxide are kept out of the atmosphere.

Check your car tires to make sure you are properly inflated. An appropriate amount of air in the tires of your car will improve fuel efficiency by more than 3%. Since every gallon of gasoline saved keeps 5 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere, every increase in fuel efficiency makes a difference.

When purchasing a new vehicle, choose one with more efficient fuel consumption You can save 3,000 pounds of carbon dioxide every year if your new car pays only 3 miles per gallon (3.78 liters) than at present. You can get 60 miles per gallon (25.54 kilometers per liter) with a hybrid car!. Try working from home (telecommuting or teleworking) Telecommuting or working from home helps you drastically reduce the number of miles you travel every week.

Fly less Air travel produces large amounts of emissions so that the number of flights Recuded even one or two trips a year can reduce your emissions significantly.


Change support local, national and internationally


Your actions to reduce global warming can extend beyond the emission reductions to do personally. We all have influence in our schools, workplaces, businesses and society in the way we shop, invest, take action and vote. Here are some ways you can have a positive effect on global warming. Promotes your school or company in reducing emissions You can extend your positive influence on global warming beyond house actively persuading others to take action.

Join the virtual march The March Stop Global Warming (Stop Global Warming) is a non-political effort to unite the citizens concerned about global warming.

It encourages the shift to renewable energy The successful fight global warming requires a transition to renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass. These technologies are ready to be deployed more widely but regulatory barriers prevent it.

Protecting and conserving the world's forests Forests play a critical role in global warming: they store carbon. When forests are burned or deforested, their stored carbon is released into the atmosphere - deforestation now involves about 20% of emissions each year.

Considers the impact of your investments If you invest your money, you should consider the impact that your investments and savings will have on global warming. You can learn more about how to make sure that your money is being invested in companies, products and projects targeted on issues on climate change.

Keep your cold city If you have the possibility to take action in your town, make proposals aimed at saving energy, improving transportation and environmental care.

Ask your representatives to act. Ask your leaders to promote legislation aimed at saving energy, forest care, improved transportation and environmental pollution abatement. Vote for candidates that promote serious efforts to protect the environment.

Make your voice heard. Practice, promotes, encourages, requests, demands and all actions performed in the care of the environment. Writes, speaks, publishes and vote on matters relating to global warming.