Group 1 is conformed by: Luís: Fernando, Daniel, Davinia, José Ricardo
This is a table with the proposals that we are going to develop.
====Global climate change====
Global climate change is now an undeniable fact.
Many observers noted the increase in air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising sea level.
Although not taken into account the benefits of having prevented some degree of climate change, there are a type of benefits as reducing energy cost or local pollution, equal or exceed the costs. Only by implementing these mitigation measures, emissions of greenhouse gases could be reduced by 2030.
Incentives for mitigation would increase if they took into account the benefits of having prevented some degree of climate change and to establish a "carbon price" for each unit of emission of greenhouse gases. Policy initiatives can offer a "carbon price" linked to a real or through taxes, regulations or schemes for emissions trading: this measure will obligue to use another energy sources .
Studies indicate that the costs would be lower if:
- The revenue from carbon taxes and emission permits would serve to promote technologies with low carbon or replace other existing taxes.
- Mitigation policies include all greenhouse gases and carbon sinks.
- Mitigation policies fought market inefficiencies, such as taxes and subsidies that distort the market.
How can different sectors reduce emissions?
Power supply: thanks to the long lifespan of power plants, investments in them will have long term impacts on emissions of greenhouse gases. They can create opportunities to achieve emission reductions by 2030, especially through the following initiatives:
- Investing in reducing energy consumption, instead of investing in new energy supply infrastructure;
- Substituting carbon for gas;
- Using nuclear energy, despite the security problems of weapons proliferation and waste management remain unresolved;
- Using renewable energy (hydrological, solar, wind, geothermal and bioenergy);
- Applying technology Carbon Capture and Storage
Increased fossil fuel prices could make low-carbon alternatives be more competitive, but also could lead to increased use of high-carbon alternatives, such as oil sands and heavy crudes.
Transport - There are multiple mitigation options in the transport sector: energy-efficient vehicles, hybrid vehicles, cleaner diesel engines, biofuels, choice of public transport compared to rail or truck transport, alternatives such as walking or bicycle, and urban planning aimed at reducing road transport needs.
Buildings - Energy efficiency options for existing and future buildings could considerably reduce CO2 emissions, generating, at a time, a financial saving.The available options include lighting, appliances, efficient heating and air conditioning, improved insulation The use of solar energy for heating and cooling, recycling or the use of alternatives to fluorinated gases for cooling.
Industry-The methods include the use of efficient electrical equipment, heat recovery and energy, recycling, and the control of emissions of gases other than CO2.
Agriculture: Agricultural practices can make a significant contribution of low cost, by increasing the amount of carbon stored below ground biomass production for energy use, in competition with other land uses could have both positive and negative impacts on the environment and food security, but the cost savings would be very high.
Waste Disposal: Wastes resulting from consumption also participana global emission of greenhouse effect. This sector may also provide mitigation at low cost by recovering landfill methane.
Better resource's management
The Importance of Water in Cities
The water rights do not arise with the State; evolve in a ecological context of human existence. The prevailing point of view is that the world is faced with a crisis caused by the scarcity of water. However, if there is indeed a crisis but not due to the physical scarcity of water, but to the continued widespread mismanagement of water resources. The world has enough water but on the condition that it can simultaneously manage adequately supply and demand of water resources.
In recent years scholars have aside which are the true aims and objectives of water management to focus only on water resources. The real purposes of water management are: reducing poverty, the redistribution incomes at a regional level and the concern of the environmental.
We konw that the continued population growth and hence economic development of regions increases the need for a better water system. By not having an appropriate scheme for the provision of potable water quality can become manifest in disputes relating to social and economic issues affecting populations of large cities.
Water infrastructure is very complex. Water does not reach it's destination equally. There is not sufficient means of administration related to planning, direction, supervision and control. The infrastructures ,the poor quality of water and the price does not cover the costs of the companies than distribute water. Water must be managed in co-ordination with the other natural resources. The problem of water management concerns not only the local level, but also the Department of Agriculture and Education.
Economic world food supply
The three basic economic requirements are: 1. developing a system of efficient prices; 2 rewarding economic opportunities for farmers; and 3 providing the sources of such opportunities.
A system of efficient prices: It consider three sets of prices, namely, prices of farm products, prices of agricultural inputs, and prices of the consumer goods and services that farm people buy for consumption.
The first set, farm product prices, is absolutely indispensable as an organizing device where there are many farmers, millions of them producing these products. No alternative system has as yet been devised that can integrate and organize efficiently the activities of many farmers.
Industrialization has often been accomplished at the expense of agriculture. During the postwar period, this approach was considered good policy in many countries. Now, however, there are second thoughts with respect to the conse- quences of this type of explotation of farm people.
High-payoff agricultural inputs required: Although an efficient system of prices is a necessary economic requirement, it is not sufficient to assure increases in food supplies. Such a system of prices sets the stage for farmers to make the best possible use of the resources available to them. Once they have exhausted the profitable opportunities immediately at hand, however, further increases in produc- tion are hard to come by unless there are new and profitable inputs.
It conducted a pilot project of introducing electric vehicles in collaboration with the Autonomous Communities and Local Government, aiming to demonstrate its technical feasibility and economic energy. This project, agreed with the automobile sector, will target to have a million electric and hybrid vehicles in 2014, giving precedence to the extent possible within production.
The General State Administration, within the procurement procedures, establish a criterion of preference over passenger vehicles energy efficiency class A.
In public vehicle fleets in 2009, will be introduced as mandatory minimum of 20% biofuels target moving at 38% in 2012.
With regard to biofuels, will take place the necessary regulatory developments to ensure compliance with the target of 5.83% of automotive fuel consumption in 2010.
El Plan VIVE (Innovative Vehicle - Ecological Vehicle) is another measure that will run until 2010 and will renovate about 240,000 vehicles with more than 15 years, which will bring considerable savings on oil consumption, and a improving road safety and reducing CO2 emissions.
Following the model used in household appliances, will require car manufacturers to inform consumers about the emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle to acquire, through a comparative energy label.
He agreed with the Autonomous Communities and local corporations for the extension of opening hours of the subway for the weekend.
Also be promoted in urban transport by bicycle, by agreement with local authorities, supporting the establishment of systems for public use bicycles and bicycle lanes in urban areas.
For cities with more than five hundred thousand, will be launched at the 2012 horizon lanes for public transport of passengers, called HOV.
This car is a prototype of Renault, It is a totally electronic car and it will go out in the next years.
Energy saving measures:
To facilitate the transit and while the total elimination is achieved, it will distribute free, and through gift certificates in the electricity bill, an energy efficient light bulb per household in 2009 and 2010. In total, about 49 million light bulbs free to all consumers who, considering that consume 80% less energy than incandescent bulbs and last between 6 and 8 times more, will generate significant savings electricity. The program will be addressed through a public call to all manufacturers.
In the case of electricity consumption by the General State Administration, will establish a binding target of a 10% effective in the first half of 2009 compared to the same period in 2008. This level of savings will be maintained permanently in the triennium.
In the area of public lighting, improve energy efficiency in outdoor lighting installations.
Was reduced by 50% the energy consumption of lighting of highways and motorways.
Finally, we will decrease the losses in transmission and distribution of electricity.
Renewable sources of energy can be divided into two categories, non-polluting and polluting. Among the first:
- The arrival of bodies of freshwater bodies of saltwater: blue energy.
- Wind: wind energy.
- The heat of the earth: geothermal energy.
- Rivers and streams of freshwater hydropower.
- The seas and oceans: tidal power.
- The Sun: solar energy.
- Waves: wave power.
Represent 20% of global electricity consumption, with 90% from hydro. The rest is very marginal: 5.5% biomass, geothermal 1.5%, wind 0.5%, solar 0.05%.
About 80% of energy needs in western industrial societies are centered around the heating, air conditioning in buildings and transport (cars, trains, aircraft). However, most large-scale application of renewable energy is concentrated in the production of electricity.
All these threats led to the signing of the Kyoto Agreement (1998), in which Europe is committed to reducing, by the between 2008 and 2012 by 8% its emissions of carbon dioxide in the level of CO2 1990.
Technology as a source of information has envolved with regards to renewable energies. European competence is among the best in the world due to intense investigative work together with industry.
Renewable energy in Germany. Federal government's plans are that in 2010 represent a 13% and reach 20% by 2020.
The share of electricity from renewable energy in Germany has increased from 6.3 percent in 2000 to about 15 percent in 2008. More than 9 billion euros (US$11.31 billion) was invested in new renewable energy installations in Germany in 2006. Some 214,000 people in Germany were employed in the renewable energy sector in 2006, especially in small and medium sized companies. Over half of these jobs are attributed to the Reneweable Energy Sources Act.
The law requires companies to buy electricity generated primarily from renewable sources. Those who produce energy at home, are guaranteed by the state that they can sell their "product" at fixed prices for 20 years. This has created a boom in clean energy production. In 2001 the law was passed providing that all nuclear power plants are closed after a period of 32 years. The idea is that by 2020 no nuclear energy is used anywhere in the country.
In Spain aims to generate 30% of its electricity from renewable sources energy for 2010.
In Spain, renewables accounted for 19.8% of electricity production. Electricity generation using renewable energy in 2007 exceeded that of nuclear origin.
Renewable energy in Spain (GWh, data of 2008)
Supply < Suministrar
Widespread < Generalizada
Renewables < Energias renovables
Saltwater < Agua salada
Hydropower < Energia hidroeléctrica
Biofuels < Biocarburantes
Waste Disposal < Tratamiento de residuos
High-payoff < Alta rentabilidad
landfill methane < Metano de los vertederos
greenhouse gases < Gases de efecto invernadero