Comenius:Solutions - Geographical aspects/Spain

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Solutions to the effects of global warming on water management from a geographical point of view.
Comments and observations should be added on the discussion page, clicking here.

Geographical aspects/Spain  Es.gif : The present page shall contain the Geographical solutions agreed upon between the three groups from Spain. Deadline: 2010 Feb 26
Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 1
Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 2
Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 3
Geographical aspects/Spain/Group 4

Sustainable urban growth

The limits of natural resources suggest three basic rules in connection with the rhythms of sustainable development.

1. Renewable resource should be used no faster than its generation.

2. No pollutant must be at a higher rate than it can be recycled, neutralized or absorbed by the environment.

3. No non-renewable resource use should be faster than necessary to replace it with a renewable resource, used sustainably.

According to some authors, these three rules are necessarily subject to the absence of population growth.

Renewable energies

All the countries of the world base their energetic consumption principally on the use of the fossil fuels. This supposes two big problems of which nowadays there are many debates: the great pollution that they generate and their possible depletion because they are not renewable resources.

What has made the energetic industry, the scientific community, the leader classes and us ...?, Apparently, only to consume them every time to major speed and to contaminate more and more fastly our planet, without worrying about solving really this. Nobody is capable of predicting when they go away to end these sources of energy but if there is anything that is clear, is that the sustainable growth of a society is impossible with a finite resource. Sooner or later they' re ended.

Because of it, the solution to this problem is to develop the renewable energies, since they are infinite:

Solar energy: In one year, the Sun emits 4000 thousand times more energy of which we consume all the inhabitants of the world in the same year. They should install solar photovoltaic panels in all the places where there is a sufficient quantity of hours of the Sun. According to Greenpeace's reports, the photovoltaic solar power might give electricity to two thirds of the world population in 2030. So the governments of the most sunny countries of the world must develop this energy.

Wind energy: This energy does not contaminate and is inexhaustible, since the air of the Earth always is in movement. In order that this energy could develop, they must establish windmills in propitious places, as well as the reduction of its cost. Windy areas must bet for wind energy.

Hydroelectric energy: In the hydroelectric head offices, the electricity is generated by means of the kinetic and potential energy of the water, which on having fallen and to move the turbine, moves an electrical generator.This energy can generate an environmental impact if it isn't adapted well to the river in which it is constructed, for what it should realize a previous study of the river in the one that will establish itself.The countries with big and numerous rivers must develop the hydroelectric energy.

Geothermal energy: Is obtained by using the heat inside the Earth. This energy is always present, since the high temperatures are usually constant, so that you can always get energy from this heat.The operation of a geothermal power has a penetration of large produndidad on the earth's crust to obtain a minimum temperature of 150 º C, and in which two tubes were introduced in a closed circuit in direct contact with the heat source. This energy must be developed in areas with porous rock layers and impermeable rock layers, that trap water and steam at high temperature and pressure and prevent them to surface, making it easier to heat removal.

The most common uses are:

  • Sanitary.
  • Various industrial uses such as milk pasteurization.
  • The introduction of heating whole districts and individual houses.
  • Spa.
  • Crops in greenhouses during the snowfall.
  • Reduce the time of growth of fish and crustaceans.

Among its advantages, we can highlight:

  • It is a low cost resource.
  • Contribute to both the generation of energy (electricity produced) and with direct heat uses.
  • Avoids reliance on foreign energy.
  • The waste produced is minimal and cause less environmental impact than fossil fuels (oil, coal, etc.).
  • Do not produce any combustion.

Producing Countries

Many countries using geothermal energy, but only Iceland produces nearly 100% of its energy through the earth's internal heat. Geothermic energy is used by countries like:

  • Portugal
  • USA
  • United Kingdom
  • New Zeland
  • Japan
  • Russia
  • Hungary
  • China
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Turkey
  • Indonesia
  • Chile
  • Italy

Tidal energy: It owes to gravitational forces between the Moon, Earth and the Sun, causing the tides,that is to say, the difference in average height of the seas as the relative position between these three stars. Using hydraulic turbines that intervene in the natural movement of the waters, together with mechanisms of channeling and warehouse, to obtain movement in an axis. It must develop in countries with big tides and in strategic places like gulfs, bays or estuaries.

Biomass energy: It comes from the use of organic matter formed in some biological process, generally, substances which are living organisms or their remains and debris. The utilization of biomass energy is made directly or by conversion into other substances that can be exploited later as fuel. It's important to use only biological sources that aren't needed for another priority use.

Even so, it doesn't mean that they do not cause negative effects on the environment, but these are infinitely minor if we compare them with the environmental impacts of the not renewable energies. They are almost always reversible and they contribute to the territorial balance, since they ofen can establish in rural and isolated zones, and they decrease the dependence of external supplies because the fossil fuels only exist in a limited number of countries. The development of these energies will suppose a radical decrease of the greenhouse effect.


Waste treatment

There are different types of waste treatment. The main goal is the minimization of material to confine.

Any type of treatment produces non-edible material which needs disposal. For example in the case of burning the final product are the ash with concentrated pollutants and dust and exhaust filters. Both are defined as hazardous waste.

Recycing is a way of dealing with waste


Recycling is a process that is present again a subject or a product already used to a cycle of total or partial treatment for a commodity or a new product. Could also be defined as the raw materials from wastes, reintroduced into the cycle of life and occurs at the prospect of depletion of natural resources and eliminate waste efficiently.

Mechanical biological treatment

Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) is a pre-treatment technology for municipal solid waste and special handling. TMB combines the classification and mechanical and biological treatment of the organic part of waste. The main goal is to eliminate pollution to the atmosphere (biogas) and the subsoil (leachate). The biogas potential danger of climate change is 21 times higher than carbon dioxide. With the Kyoto Protocol established a system of certification and marketing of carbon credits which can produce additional revenue which can lower operating costs significantly. TMB is also sometimes called TBM-Mechanical Biological Treatment - though this simply refers to the order of treatment.

Heat Treatment

Known as the heat treatment process after undergoing metals or other solids in order to improve their mechanical properties, especially the hardness, strength and toughness. The materials to applying the heat treatment are basically steel and cast iron, iron and formed carbono.También various heat treatments are applied to ceramic solids.

Zero Waste Treatment

It consists of the construction, commissioning and operation and management audit of a Processing Plant for final disposal of "Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), using them as inputs to a production process in this case, building materials, flooring , infrastructure, etc..


The loss of forests is one of the big problems to solving nowadays, since every year million hectares of them are felled in the whole world.

Forests are absolutely necessary to prevent the greenhouse effect, that the soil is degraded and the water cycle and climate are affected. Reforesting the absortion of CO2 is greater, so the quantity of this gas in the atmosphere is minor and less solar radiation is being trapped in the Earth. Trees prevent soil erosion because the roots anchor the soil and prevents it from being degraded by the sun. And they increase the quantity of water steam in the air for the process of perspiration, which does that there are more rainfalls and that the temperature remains stabler.

So that's why we must protect the forests and this are the solutions to stop this:

1. To make aware the whole people of whom the forests must be respected, already be in the colleges to the youngest as by means of campaigns of spreading.

2. That the governments of each country is responsible for investing money in reforestation work, because without political bearing support everything becomes more difficult.

3. Protect the forests and to improve the measures of prevention of fires.

Public transport developement

The Future of Transports

Alternative fuels

The bio-petroleum renewable

The bio-petroleum renewable and his creator, Cristian Gomis

The biological oil, renewable and carbon dioxide absorbed in an endless cycle has been created by the company Bio Fuel System (BFS) in Alicante

Is the green algae, contains hundreds of millions of unicellular organisms per cubic milliliter, and it has taken years to several years with the scientific formula of growing in an artificial environment. Not surprisingly, behind the biofuel future are the departments of Biotechnology, Chemical and Marine Sciences at the Universities of Alicante and Valencia.

In these years we have selected some thirty families of algae strains to chlorophyte that has been fed with sunlight, CO2 and a pinch of phosphorus and nitrogen. The result has been that these artificial conditions best, with no extreme changes in temperature or currents or predators, have accelerated their life processes and reproductive rights. If the marine environment, the concentration of these beings is 300 in a cubic milliliter, in the BFS system reaches 200 million. Every day the hundreds of thousands of millions of people are divided into two every 12 hours. Thus biomass is served.

The bio-petroleum BFS has the black color of crude and has no sulfur or heavy metals to be incorporated into their fossilization. Organic matter is only cellulose and silicon membrane.

Every day, milking the cylinder removing half of it is centrifuged, the water is returned to the tank so that double the number of individuals in the next 24 hours and is the organic matter in pulp refining or dry coal .

In BFS achieve that in every two cubic meters of water, produced six kilos per day of biomass. This is thousands of times more than the annual crop of soybean, sunflower and palm, using much less land and less aggressively.

  • The vehicles with alternative fuels are equipments that use fuels different from those who come from the oil.
  • The alternative fuels are formed(trained) by chains of atoms of carbon. The alternative fuels, they have not so much energy.
  • Having in it counts the problems related to the environmental pollution and the energetic world, there becomes necessary increasingly.

the employment of the alternative fuels in the vehicles.

  • Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional or advanced fuels, are any materials or subtances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels. Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coals, propane, and natural gas), and nuclear materials such as uranium.
  • Some well known alternative fuels include biodiesel, bioalcohol (methanol, ethanol, buthanol), chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells); hydrogen, non-fossil mehtane, non-fossiL natural gas, vegetable oil and other biomas sources.

Geographical aspects

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Economical aspects

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Social aspects

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Political aspects

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